In the present article the author analyzes extent of participation of private structures in innovative development, investigates legal forms of participation of institutes of civil society in innovative development of Russia, considers the main directions of state regulation of innovative activity. Following the results of the carried-out research the author does generalizing conclusions.
The article reveals the legal nature of expenses of budget and provides a definition of the concept as a legal category.
In the article the questions the legal classification of contracts based on electronic documents (EDI), especially online transactions as contracts, agreements, obligations and specific form, signed with the use of web resources, as well as analyze the form of contracts, the moments of their conclusion, the occurrence of the obligations under conclusion of the contract online, the place and role of an electronic document, electronic signature at the conclusion of agreements in the global network. An important role played by the preparation, processing and transmission of electronic documents, his receipt and storage.
Modern relations between work and the capital are so difficult and developed, regulated by the law that is necessary to study history of adoption of legal bases of mutual relations of its in our country in the end of 19th century to reveal essence and an originality of these connections. This article includes the historical conditions of adoption of the first law regulating of working time of adult workers at factories. In the text is reflected the principal causes of the law, some important norms of act, and consequences of its realization for representatives of wage labour the comparative analysis with the foreign legislation. The role of state is observed as intermediary between various social stratums.
In modern conditions, there is a role of dynamic legal consciousness as the main factor of law-making and law enforcement. The development of the legal space and understanding of law as a "moment of rest" and the leading influence on the origin of the process reflects the stages of development of legal awareness in connection with socio-economic and other changes. This involves taking into account the types of legal awareness that reflect the common interests and interests of different segments of society. Overcoming the passivity and lack of constructiveness of people requires the development of a mechanism for analyzing the levels of legal awareness. Such vectors of development of legal consciousness as mutual influence, consciousness and behavior in the national legal sphere, features of consciousness under the influence of international and foreign law, characteristics of the impact of digitalization and media space are considered.
The main focus of this paper is the problem of the child’s access to the fair trial. For the first time this problem is considered within the context of the civil litigation. With this in view the author studies Russian legislation and practices in the field of child's access to the participation in the civil cases. Further, the detailed overview of the European convention on human rights and fundamental freedoms provisions regulating access of the child to the Court and Court’s decisions and judgments on the issue is given to demonstrate the Court’s approaches to this problem.
The article defines the limits of qualification of terrorist crimes. The author distinguishes them from common criminal offences, sabotage, military crimes and analyzes the notion of “State Terrorism”, stating limits of terrorism from the point of subject of crime.
The article deals with the historical development of concept of limits of law and its relation in connection with rational/irrational opposition. The paradoxical nature of the limit as such consists in the fact that it creates a freedom space and decease irrational forces and at the same time restricts this freedom and force the freedom to overcome the limit. There are two types of limits of law: moral (principled) limits and practical (instrumental) limits. The rational basis of these limits is analyzed in article. The moral limits of law identify deviations in the relations between individuals, society and the state, irrational approaches and decisions. The paradox of moral limits manifests itself in the form of dependence of freedom on the modern state. Practical (instrumental) limits arise in a case when law subdue to the goals and functions of other systems, and lost its autonomy. The necessity of critics of using of law as a means-to-ends is substantiated. Practical limits of law are manifested when regulation ignores the state of social system: the level of integration of social system or its stratification or the level of democracy. Paradoxes of regulation arise both in the object regulation and in the legal system itself. If legal regulation ignores the autonomy of law, rationality of legal system decreases. The signs of these are the practical limits of law and paradoxes of regulation.