The theoretical basis of work is the notion of legitimation as a complex mechanism of social approval of a new phenomenon taking place with the active participation of different social groups and structures, able to influence its final form. In the focus of the empirical analysis the representations of social entrepreneurship that main actors of its legitimacy in Russia have. Among them are: the state, foundations, NPOs and business. We assess the (in)consistency between their representations as well as the reflection of these representations in the characteristics of existing organizations of social entrepreneurship (social enterprises).
Business, government and NPOs are understood as external actors of social enterprise legitimation, as without their recognition the legitimation will not take place. In turn, social enterprises, regardless of whether they come from for-profit or non-profit sector, are seen as objects of legitimation, or as a new actor, not identical to any of the above. It is shown that the contradictions in the positions of key actors can lead to mutually exclusive projects of legitimation of a new phenomenon, so that they will undermine the cognitive and moral legitimacy of each other. The empirical data include the results of the authors survey of 202 social enterprises.
Mobile internet provides conditions for the split presence of participants interacting in augmented reality. This is especially true for participants of location-based mobile games that move through the streets of the city and are among other passers-by. Split presence means that presence in the physical environment and presence in the virtual environment can be in varying degrees of coherence. For the game process, it is important to constantly relate who is near and what happens on the screen of the mobile device that actualizes the problem of compliance of accepted rules of propriety. To conceptualize what is considered "proprieties" in situations involving gadgets, we turn to the theoretical resources of Erving Goffman. According to E. Goffman, proprieties mean maintaining the presence among the other participants of a situation that includes two elements: location and involvement in what is happening. The maintenance of proprieties is revealed in the desire of all participants to find a balance between these two elements. However, the possibility of (in)consistency between these two elements rises in location-based mobile games, because of which several protective mechanisms of attention distribution among participants in interaction are involved: 1) constant monitoring of the surrounding, 2) appropriate (not) ignoring passers-by, 3) total exclusion from the interaction of cheaters who substitute their location in the game. Together the three mechanisms ensure the “smoothness” of the game and the resulting public interactions, the boundaries of which now include rules of conduct in both offline- and online-environments. The methodology of the empirical research is based on ten semi-structured interviews with the players of Ingress the Game and Pokémon Go, as well as multiangle shooting of five game episodes. As a result of analysis of the collected video material, we see that users of location-based mobile games do not fall out of interaction with passers-by. They continue monitoring reactions of passers-by to their presence in public places trying to normalize their appearance. In an unhurried game, players spend a lot of effort not to seem completely absorbed by mobile devices. To do this, players switch attention from screens to passers-by, distracting them when they are so close that it allows monitoring of the actions of other participants in the situation. However, the behavior of players is substantially limited by ignoring the reactions of passers-by, which makes the players' position closed to spontaneous interaction. In addition to the fact that players are attentive to the presence of passers-by, they also scrupulously approach dishonest players (cheaters) who substitute the coordinates of their location, which allows them to perform game actions in places where they do not exist. In the case of detection of such cases, "live" players cease to notice the actions of cheaters excluding them from public interaction.
The outflow of young people from small towns of Russia is significant and it is mainly associated with the departure to study in big cities. The paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey of secondary school graduates in 4 Russian small towns which are located at a great distance from regional centers. The interviews with the experts in these cities conducted in 2015 are also presented. The article analyses the reasons and intentions for migration, its scope and direction of the young people outflow, opportunities and obstacles of return migration. It was conducted that the youth migration is not their spontaneous decision, purpose on departure for the study formed long before graduation. Families stand ready to support young people in their migratory intentions to the big cities. Leaving areas selected for study are frequently chosen on the subsequent departure of the whole family. When choosing the direction of migration the prestige of the university and the presence of a chosen speciality is taken into account. But to a greater extent, the prospects to remain for permanent residence in the city where young people sent to study play major role. Return migration in the small towns after graduation is light, and it is mostly associated with the presence of a good job or a bad experience of mortgage in a big city.
Modern corporate culture in the context of Bauman’s liquid modernity is greatly defined by the level of freedom, in particular, flexibility, mobility, new technologies and mass communications. Staying connected 24/7 both in professional and private life known as ‘hyperconnectivity’ becomes commonplace. Hyperconnectivity entails not only positive but also negative consequences regarding the effectiveness of an individual’s work as well as the work of entire organizations. The purpose of the article is to consider the negative aspects of the use of mobile devices as a way to establish work-life balance in the context of modern liquidity. Individual’s ‘right to disconnect’ minimizing the adverse effects of hyperconnectivity is essential to the analysis of the issue. The right to disconnect is a new addition to the list of labor rights allowing an individual to disconnect from the work primarily by switching off email or disabling workrelated messages during nonworking hours. To study the need to introduce ‘the right to disconnect’ and to achieve a better work-life balance the authors examine the labor practices in South Korea and two European countries (Germany and France).
In their version of modernization theory, R. Inglehart and K. Welzel suggest that younger cohorts socialized under conditions of existential security are the main drivers of post-materialist values and modernization process. In this paper, we test this thesis based on five waves of the World Values Survey fielded in Russia and covering the period from 1990 to 2017. We use age-period-cohort analysis, which disentangles the effects of age, time period and cohorts. We implement a method of measuring emancipative values proposed by K. Welzel. His emancipative values consist of four different indices: «autonomy», «equality», «choice», and «voice». The results show that younger cohorts in Russia do have a higher level of emancipative values as suggested by the theory. The basis for the transformation of values is three indices out of four: «autonomy», «choice», and «voice». «Equality» is the only index that showed neither age nor cohort differences.
One way to take control over the effect of social desirability on respondent answers is to introduce social desirability scales into questionnaire. Social desirability scale included into the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and used for the Russian-speaking sample of teachers was not cross-culturally adapted. Besides that, this tool is based on the Marlowe-Crowne Scale where the psychometric characteristics are assessed only according to the Classical Test Theory and have ambiguous results. To fill in the gap in our knowledge of validity of the TALIS scale of social desirability, the authors conducted a psychometric analysis using the Item Response Theory. The results showed good reliability, considerable unidimensionality, though poor scale functioning. Based on the obtained results including simulated data, measures to improve the quality of psychometric characteristics of the scale are proposed by the authors. The key findings concerning the structure of the social desirability construct are made.
Since the beginning of the 2000s, subjective well-being of the Russians was growing due to growing incomes and strengthening optimism about the future. However, the worsening economic situation following the crisis in 2008 did not cause the expected fall in subjective well-being rates. One plausible explanation is the growth of national pride. In this paper, it is tested whether or not national pride positively and causally affect happiness and life satisfaction of Russians. Possible compensatory properties of national pride — its hypothetical stronger effect for individuals with low incomes and poor health — are also being investigated. Data: integrated database of the World Values Survey and the European Values Study containing survey data for Russia from 1990 to 2017. Methods: linear regression with instrumental variables. Results: the effect of national pride on subjective well-being is positive and statistically significant (β = 0.26, p-value < 0.001), the effect persists while using instrumental variables (β = 0.92, p-value < 0.001); the effect is stronger in the period after 2008, as well as for people with low incomes.
The authors explore how students describe and assess the impact of their participation in extracurricular activities. The basis of the study is 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews involving students of two Russian universities participating in the project 5—100 (National Research University and Federal University). Three key groups of positive consequences of extracurricular activity were singled out: gaining skills and competencies, expanding social ties, and professional self-determination. Students view the extra-curricular hours as a way to develop both their practical skills related to their professional activities and flexible skills which they consider to be useful in the job search after the graduation. Besides that, the extracurricular activity for them is a platform for acquiring social capital while interacting with a wider circle of people: other students, lecturers, university employees, and external environment. According to the students, combining their classroom activities with the extracurricular activities helps them make sure that they have made the right choice, gives an opportunity to try professional roles and duties, while still being students, and opens new career perspectives.
The article devoted to a conceptualization of Russian actual gender order. For these means, the author uses
I. Kon’s idea of three revolutions, as a social process of rebuilding the gender relationships in the sexual, familial, educational and occupational spheres. Also, the author introduces an analytical framework to interpret in a new way a specificity of gender relationships (re)production in modern Russia, and identify factors supporting and preventing the change in relations between men and women in the public and private spheres towards greater gender equality, i.e. gender revolution. Using G. Esping-Andersen’s concept of multiple equilibrium and S. Duncan’s concept of institutional bricolage we can analyze the relationship between the Soviet experience of gender policy and modern trends of individualization and pluralization. When we review the sexual, gender and family revolutions in the historical context, we can find out how the (re)invention of tradition proceeds in the modern context, how the modern gender basing on the Soviet experience of gender policy and how strong it is, and how much post-Soviet transformations and global trends contributed to its specificity.
August 1998 caused a considerable decline of the population's standard of living. At the same time, the reaction of Russian society to the crisis and its consequences was considerably mild. The outburst of strikes appeared to be weak and public mood began noticeably improving already since the second half of October. The scale and duration of the improvement of public mood demonstrate the presence of factors softening negative processes in the social sphere and ensuring the Russians' adaptation to the post-crisis conditions that are far from comfortable. The data of VCIOM Monitoring enable to examine in more or less detail the following two factors: a decrease in the level of economic demands and a high level of confidence in Ye. Primakov's government.
The possibility of achieving a work-life balance can be considered as one of the types of life chances related to the quality of life. In the article, the main dimensions of inequality in the possibilities of achieving life balance in general and in different areas that compose it (with special attention devoted to the possibilities of non-production activities), are estimated on the basis of the data of all-Russian representative monitoring carried out by Institute of Sociology FCTAS RAS. It is shown that inequalities in the sphere of life balance do not smooth out other monetary and non-monetary inequalities in life chances (in particular – those in economic sphere), but, on the contrary, deepen them. It is concluded that vertical stratification remains dominant in Russian society, and those dimensions of non-monetary inequality that are associated with way of life and lifestyle, are superimposed on it rather than become the basis of horizontal stratification. Therefore, the possibility of achieving it in Russian society today is a sign of the general well-being in vertical hierarchies of other economic and non-economic life chances. The general context for formation of work-life balance concept is also taken into account - in particular, it is shown that social perceptions of life success remain fairly traditional and are connected mostly with the realization of goals in the social and work sphere that are quite achievable and complementary in the population’s own assessments.
The paper focuses on the opportunities provided by the studies of social equalities at the levels of separate localities. The author analyzes the specifics of inequalities of success and claims in three different types of localities: rural area, small city and large city. The study is based on the data of surveys conducted by the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory (HSE – St Petersburg) involving 8,965 ninthgraders. The following predictors were tested using linear and logistic regression models: student’s gender, student’s mother’s education levels, parental socioeconomical status and cultural capital as well as school’s status. In the case of a dependent variable presented as educational aspirations, tests for school performance were also made. The results obtained were compared using marginal effect calculations. The fndings show that each locality has its own specifcs of social reproduction. Large representative samples can only suggest a possible general logic whereas continuous sampling in particular localities enables a more accurate measurement. In this regard, knowing the local contexts helps to explain the results that were obtained.
The papers analyzing modern emigration intentions of Russians and their fulfillment are not numerous. One of the reasons behind that is the lack of reliable statistical data concerning persons who leave their home country and do not notify the registration body of their departure for the new place of residence. However they are great in number. What can be done to fill the gap is to provide a statistical analysis of the main countries accepting Russian emigrants, which was already done by certain researchers, or to use qualitative sociological methods. The present paper analyzes the results of semistructured interviews with skilled emigrants who left Russia in 2011—2017; the interviews were part of a research project conducted by the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration in 2017. The analysis of participant interviews helps to indentify the motives, channels and mechanisms of
Russian emigrants with higher education diplomas and to answer the questions
referring to similarities and differences between individuals of different professions, age groups and those leaving for different countries when they choose certain patterns. The authors conclude that the lack of relevant differences in intentions across all the abovementioned groups is one of the main findings. Over recent years most of skilled emigrants have been driven primarily by economical and partially by political motives. Nevertheless, the choice of channels and mechanisms of emigration are greatly shaped by the professional background, type of employment, age and even the migration direction. IT workers and employees working in finance and economic sector tend to relocate using labor contracts; young scientists opt for grant schemes or free internships; older generation involving creative profession als and people of liberal professions turn to education channels using their own funds. The group of remote job skilled emigrants is distinctive as they use the whole variety of channels and mechanisms to move abroad.
The article presents the results of the research which aim is to analyze the reaction of enterprises to changes in Labor laws norms since the time of a new Labor code introduction (February 2002). The authors analyze the findings of two surveys of top-managers each based on a sample of 300 industrial enterprises. The analysis shows that in spite of a relatively short time past after introducing the new Labor code topmanagers of enterprises are rather well aware of its contents. But most of them evaluate changes in comparison with the previous Code of Labor laws as insignificant ones. Accordingly significant changes in actual employers' behavior in labor sphere have not been found yet. Perhaps the only sphere where new norms of Labor law have led to real changes in the employers economic behavior is the increase of workers employment on fixed-term contracts.
The issue of "informal relationships" (corruption, acquaintances, shadow relations, etc.) is viewed in the context of the totalitarian system collapse and blocking social differentiation. The majority of population keeps up paternalistic attitudes towards the state realizing at the same time actual non-effectiveness of the state system of management and social security. While condemning bribes and "blat", the prevailing share of respondents consider them as the only effective means of solving their life problems to the extent they go out of the limits of routine social roles and relationships (health service, higher education, getting dwelling or good job, relieving of the military service, etc.). The potential of social solidarity and organization, as well as the activity of public social institutions and political parties, other forms of civil society are assessed extremely lowly by population: they are rarely addressed to (though a great number of respondents are aware of them) and rarely bring about the necessary results. The so-called "non-formal relations" turn out to be we]] structured in terms of roles, stably reproduced, accurately tariffed and as a rule efficacious. Actually they are aubstitute forms of social institutions.