The article considers the interaction of representatives of exact Sciences (mathematics and information technologies) with sociologists, which influenced the development, thematic repertoire, methodology and formation of the Arsenal of methods of sociology in the 60-80s of the XX century. The object of research is scientific and communicative texts (articles, materials of memories, interviews, recordings of oral memories) of participants of interdisciplinary interaction in the past and in the present. The features of the period of 60-80-ies for interdisciplinary cooperation of sociologists and mathematicians are described. The main feature of paradigmatical sociology of scientific knowledge. And exact Sciences played a special role in this process, as they participated in the formation of language, thematic repertoire and methodological Arsenal of sociology. The analysis of the functions of exact Sciences for sociology, which formed the request for cooperation, shows that the main functions were three: methodological, instrumental, practical (socio-engineering). The article describes three cases of cooperation. The first is when it was formed under the organizational and intellectual leadership of mathematicians (Novosibirsk school). The second – when the leadership positions were sociologists (Leningrad school), and the third-when the" rules of the game " were set by external agents-the cooperation of sociologists and mathematicians in the workplace. We identify and classify typical problems to be solved by joint efforts of representatives of the exact Sciences and of social scientists in each of the three cases. Conclusions are drawn about the significance of this period for the development of sociology and the further directions of research on this topic from the point of view of epistemology and history of sociology. Further development of this topic, in our opinion, lies in the direction of analysis of mechanisms of cooperation between sociologists and representatives of exact Sciences and its institutionalization.
The article considers historical and intellectual circumstances of the publication of C. Whight Mills' paper "Professional Ideology of Social Pathologists". It shows that this paper is of obvious historical interest because it allows to trace the evolution of Mills' own ideas as well as the development of the American sociology in 1930-40s. It also shows that this paper is one of the first attempts in reflective sociology, and therefore it can be used by today sociologists in the analysis of the foundations of sociological knowledge.
The article describes an interactionist, special and activist conception of individual social identity, based on a sociological understanding of un/freedom to act. “Social identity” is interpreted after H. Tajfel (as a regulatory cognitive entity), as "knowledge of one’s belonging to a certain social group added by emotional and evaluative aspects". Adapting to the social environment and structuring the "infinite variety of environmental stimuli," every actor categorizes the others’ selves as well as her/his own self. Self-definition of the individual's place in an environment is taken as her/his social identity.
But identity is always a temporary, and changeable inconclusive result of self-identification by an individual with certain social roles in a particular segment of the social space. Taken in the cognitive aspect, identity is a snapshot of identification process, a permanent (re)production of individual self-determination in the course of social interactions with significant others.
Taken in the observable, behavioral aspect, (positive) social identity is a representation of a “territory” for the positive freedom ("freedom-for" in terms of I. Berlin), i.e. such segments of the social space, where an actor is ready for the voluntary implementation of social roles with high involvement. A space where an actor does not see her/himself as an actor is thought in negative sense and generates a negative self-determination.
The conception includes the 9 theses to reveal the necessary conditions (the presupposition) for an individual interprets a certain social space as a territory of positive freedom to act. The 9 theses are synthetized in a definition of individual’s social identification — daily and mutually oriented accepting to belong to a group, its boundaries, rules and hierarchies, which manifests itself in a positive freedom to act and, at the same time, causes it.
The conception is designed to give a broad notion of the identity a terminological rigor, as well as a theoretical framework to analyze (in both quantitative and qualitative data) not only the cognitive and emotional ones, but also the behavioral aspect of social identity.
In his classical paper, published in 1943, famous American sociologist C. Wright Mills analyses a tradition of social pathologies studies that was popular in American sociology in 1920–30s. Author argues that a low level of abstraction, ignorance of wider social structures, orientation to the «organic» ideals of stability and adaptation are characteristic for this approach. Mills connects these features of the ideology of social pathologists to the social context of the functioning of sociological knowledge: professional careers of social pathologists, their origins, channels of the distribution of sociological texts, potential readers.
The focus of this article is the methodological aspect of protest behavior determinants identifying; specifically variants of handling with categorical (nominal and ordinal) predictors which hypothetically explain this or that protest potency level. Thus, when using regression for explaining the protest potency levels one may transform categorical predictors into dummy variables. Such a solution makes the model bulky and generates troubles with assessing this model. The authors suggested loglinear analysis as the alternative to the mentioned solution. There search’s aim was parallel implementing the two mentioned methods and comparing them on the base of i) the suggested a priori criteria and ii) gained empirical results. The raw data were extracted from Elektoral'naya Panel 2011–2012of WCIOM. The dependent variable was Protest Potential; the hypothetical predictors belonged to the socio-economic bloc of the Panel. The results show that there are serious statistical reasons to reconsider methods of determinants identifying when working with categorical variables, and loglinear analysis worked better comparing the quality and the set of determinants.