The article is dedicated to fiscal incentives for business angels. Business angel, a comparatively new phenomenon in Russia, is defined in the first part of the article. The second part is a research of fiscal incentives intended for private investors in order to encourage them to support small innovative enterprises. The research is based on European and North American experience. Finally, the third part suggests the ways of creating a system of fiscal incentives for business angels in Russia.
A well-developed system of technical monitoring suggests technical regulations which set defi nite fi nancially and economically substantiated requirements for the produce and processes. Th ese requirements must be explicit, unequivocal, comprehensive and suitable for practical use. Yet so far, the requirements of obligatory parameters of security and the requirements of quality of the produce and processes have actually had the same legal status and common terms of making and providing their compliance. Th e norm-and-technical documents have still enjoyed the status of obligatory legal documents which allows agencies and citizens. It obviously contradicts the Constitution fundamentals and is a serious hindrance to the development of the economy in Russia.
The article is devoted to the problem of introducing, changing and trajectories of further development of the higher education state standard in public and municipal governance (bachelor and 5-year specialist programs). The basic reasons for transition from 5-year program towards bachelor one have been discovered. Division of bachelor degree programs in public and municipal governance and management is argued on the basis of their competences difference. Further preserving of the state standard for the bachelor degree in public and municipal governance and unified development of the bachelor curricula in different Russian universities are not found possible. Likely trends of their divergence have been traced. The complicated way of formation of the public administration bachelor program in the Higher School of Economics has been presented as an example.
One of the key goals of modern government’s social policy is to increase the quality of social services provision and, accordingly, the satisfaction level of citizens as social services consumers. Th e choice of methods and tools in order to solve this challenge is restricted to existing resources of government agencies: budget, personnel, information technologies, etc. Our research demonstrates that independent evaluation mechanism for social sphere organizations’ (SSO) work quality remains of a high demand in the worldwide context. In this paper the authors provide the methodology and results of the independent quality evaluation mechanism for social sphere organizations in Russia. We used secondary analysis of the sociological data arrays and Russian Statistics Service microdata as well as citizens’ opinions expressed in the Internet, in order to develop our methodology about citizens’ preferences for making choice among SSO. We used a comparative study to outline international experience in SSO independent evaluation process. We outlined key citizens’ satisfaction factors with social services provision by applying Kano model. We prove the multysubjective and multifactor nature of SSO independent quality evaluation.
Nonprofits play a growing role in social service delivery as a result of privatization of local public services through contracting out by the public sector. This paper explores a competitive bidding process in eight regions of Russian Federation where local governments entered into during 2011-2012. The author reviews reasons to involve nonprofit organisations in a quasi-market as local government social service contractors. The non-distribution constraints and mission of nonprofits organizations tend to preclude exploitation of purchasers and consumers. Thus, this type of social services providers can be more appropriate for needs of the society. Then bidding documents have been analyzed in terms of a type of providers’ ownership, public or private one, levels of nonprofits activity and nonprofits’ competitiveness. The findings indicate considerable discrepancies between numbers of social services competitive tenders in the regions in question. Types of social services that the local governments procure vary significantly from region to region. They range from strictly standardized services to credence ones. These differences are supposed to be an essential factor of nonprofits’ participation in procurement because of characteristics of nonprofit organizations. The most active nonprofits’ involvement has been found out in regions where procured services are the same the nonprofits usually produce. Three types of nonprofits’ behavior in the regional quasi-markets have been discovered. Firstly, they take an active part in the competitive bidding and compete with business and public organizations successfully. Secondly, they actively participate in this process but compete with similar producers only. Finally, they are rather inactive as potential local government contractors.
The article is based on the empirical research done during 2008-2010 within the framework of research projects of the Project-academic laboratory of the municipal management at the National Research University High School of Economics on municipal territories of Krasnodar, Tver, Kostroma, Kaliningrad, Rostov, Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk. Th e research found that municipal territorial structure is unbalanced especially in city districts. Th e article considers such a phenomenon of the territorial structure as territorial forms independent of geographical regions and the subjects of the Russian Federation. Th e existing forms of city districts are characterized and a forecast of possible prospects of their development is made in the article.
This article aims to identify some factors of legal regulation that put limits on the use of centralized methods in law and, in a broader sense, in social governance, primarily factors that inevitably produce legal indeterminacy and make a law-applying entity act at its discretion.
The article is based on a hypothesis that putting a safety hedge around the deductive model of law application with the unawareness of legal indeterminacy and the need for discretionary action on the part of a law-applying entity results in this subject being ousted from the theory of legal reasoning and legal theory in general, primarily in Russian legal discourse.
This has direct practical effects as it hides the availability for a law-applying entity of more than one option for a decision on a specific case and consequently relieves it of the need to publicly explain the motives for its choice. For this reason, any attempt to sustain the illusion that a specific decision in the application of law is deductible from law will have the opposite effect, namely enlargement of discretionary powers, inconsistent and arbitrary judicial and administrative practices, and a less significant role of social governance mechanisms that are based on general rules.
Consequently, any attempt to give a paramount role to centralized regulatory methods in government will have internal limitations that stem from such intrinsic indeterminacy.
The article also purports to systematize arguments underlying the thesis of inevitable indeterminacy and partial autonomy of a law-applying entity in taking decisions regardless of what a law stipulates.
The article analyzes factors such as the linguistic indeterminacy of stipulation, the deliberate ambiguity of a specific law (e.g. the use of “bendable” rules or legal standards and value judgments), the incompletion or contradictoriness of a law, the discretionary selection of significant facts and discretionary qualifications of specific cases, legal dysfunction, contradiction between the objectives of a law and the results of its application, inevitable exceptions to rules, and indeterminate principles for the interpretation of law and for filling legal gaps.
The reasons for the use of administrative discretion include more extensive state regulation, wider use of redistribution, changes in the nature of tasks to be addressed in public administration and higher standards for their implementation, more sophisticated decision-making technology, the need for law-applying entities to have better knowledge in various specialist fields and a more prominent role of specialists, limited resources, and the incrementalist style of decision-making.
This article identifies and analyses the reasons that have led to the failures of the financial policy at the municipal level. Based on the author’s own empirical research, it highlights the major reasons leading to an ineffective financial management at the municipal level, such as (1) failure of a constructive dialogue between different authorities, (2) a negative impact of personal characteristics of the head of the municipality on the quality of management, and (3) lack of incentives in municipal officials to increase their revenue base. There are some recommendations at the end of article that, in the author’s opinion, can lead to a higher efficiency of the municipal financial policy.
Reorganizing the social services market to allow for its access non-state providers is a major innovation in Russia. Welfare mix concepts give a theoretical justification to this innovation. The key element of justification is the demonstration of advantages NPOs have as services providers compared to state-owned or private organizations fulfilling similar functions. However, a more careful assessment of the outlook of Russian NPOs on the emerging social services market requires an analysis of their comparative disadvantages as well. This paper aims at investigating organizational weaknesses of Russian nonprofit providers of social services funded by the state drawing on foreign and Russian experience of practices in cross-sectoral cooperation. The paper first addresses some key comparative disadvantages rooted in the economic and financial foundations of NPOs. The authors then investigate weaknesses related to the level of professionalism in social services delivery by NPOs to suggest some recommendations on measures the government and the nonprofit sector respectively could contemplate to compensate for NPOs’ comparative disadvantages, so that the potential capacity of NPOs to generate innovative solutions is best utilized in the interests of a more efficient social policy. For the verification of theory and for international comparisons of practices of cross-sectoral cooperation Russian sociological data gathered in the course of a long-term NRU HSE project on Monitoring Russian Civil Society are used.
Federal legislation provides only minimal and insuffi cient regulation of the statusand activities of the regional audit institutions in Russia. Due to this themain developments in the regulation of state audit and regional audit institutionsin Russia happen on the regional level.Th e article describes the process of adoption and the main features of thenew Law of the City of Moscow “On the Chamber of Control and Accounts ofMoscow” including aims and powers of this public body, its independence and accountability,types of its activities, and the process of planning of its activities.
The paper reveals the basis and constraints for applying the discount of 1/8-th fines for a company that has violated the antitrust law, but previously introduced an antitrust compliance program. Here is an example of the following idea implementation: a company gets an opportunity for fines discounts in case of law violation if it elaborates and implements a set of internal institutions to abide by the corresponding law. To reveal the role of the corporate compliance programs as a means of forming credible commitments on the part of companies was one of the goals of the research. So, situations on creating incentives for companies not to commit anticompetitive actions were considered and analyzed, as well as the deterrence effects of the legal system and the issues of I and II types of errors in enforcement were explained. For this reason differences between the antitrust compliance programs and leniency programs are demonstrated. The applicability of the comparative negligence rule is also discussed. Elements of a model are introduced that reflect the possibilities of not only a fair use of the compliance programs, but also of an opportunistic behavior of the actors, including the antitrust authority. There is no guarantee that the antitrust compliance program should lead to equilibrium in the strategic interaction with the choice of “minimal control” by the antimonopoly agency.
At the article presented the results of research at the field of human capital, appliet toward the present trends of the development at public administration education at central and Eastern Europe. Legalistic, managerial and politological approaches toward curricula at different European universities are analysed. Discussions at the Working Group of EGPAA at the subject presented. Some conclusions at the article is valuable for future corrections at the development of public administration at Russian Universities.