The purpose of this study was to determine existing practices of young volunteer recruitment, retention and motivation in Russian noncommercial and government organizations and compare them with the best practices in American organizations. To know this information is essential for government managers and NGO leaders to successfully attract and retain young people as volunteers in their organizations. The theories of “economic man” and “altruistic man” have shaped the methodology and research design of this study. To determine the advances and limitations of youth volunteering, the authors conducted expert interviews with prominent public figures and civil society experts. To collect data on practical youth recruitment, retention and motivation, the authors organized semi-structured interviews with 16 NCO leaders in Moscow.
The data have been analyzed and divided in thematic clusters. The synthesis of information permitted to determine three major types of youth volunteering, identify internal and external motivational factors, and single out Russian traditional motives, methods of recruitment and ways of interaction between managers and young volunteers. Based on data analysis, the authors have developed recommendations on best organizational policy for recruitment, retention, and motivation of young volunteers in Russia. In conclusion, the authors developed practical approaches for volunteer managers in government and NGOs is Russia, which included the combination of traditional methods as well as modern volunteer management techniques.
The study expands existing knowledge on managing young volunteers, provides insights in how to better use traditional Russian collective values and connections among young people o attract and inspire them to be good citizens. Results of this study have practical value for government volunteer coordinators and NGO leaders and volunteer managers.
Peculiarities of the obligatory medical insurance system (OMIS) and form varietyof the OMIS will be considered in this article at the regional and municipallevel. In conclusion the analysis of planning over patching in the OMIS in connectionwith a new version of the federal statute № 212 of 24.07.2009 and a new bill«About obligatory medical insurance in the Russian Federation» will be made.Th is article is based on the own empirical research that was conducted withinthe period of November 2006 to June 2010 in the municipal bodies of Kirov,Arkhangelsk, Kostroma and Kaliningrad Regions, in Altai Territory, Republic ofAltai, Republic of Tatarstan, Republic of Bashkortostan.Th e majority of the collected materials is devoted to problems of municipalhealth services and to survival mechanisms of primary medical institutions withinthe modern administration system in the conditions of a fi nancial defi cit, a weakmaterial and technical basis and a lack of qualifi ed personnel. In the research conductedthe following methods were used: statistical data analysis for each region,fi nancial and other offi cial documentation analysis of medical institutions, the interviewingof local experts and healthcare personnel.
The article is dedicated to fiscal incentives for business angels. Business angel, a comparatively new phenomenon in Russia, is defined in the first part of the article. The second part is a research of fiscal incentives intended for private investors in order to encourage them to support small innovative enterprises. The research is based on European and North American experience. Finally, the third part suggests the ways of creating a system of fiscal incentives for business angels in Russia.
A well-developed system of technical monitoring suggests technical regulations which set defi nite fi nancially and economically substantiated requirements for the produce and processes. Th ese requirements must be explicit, unequivocal, comprehensive and suitable for practical use. Yet so far, the requirements of obligatory parameters of security and the requirements of quality of the produce and processes have actually had the same legal status and common terms of making and providing their compliance. Th e norm-and-technical documents have still enjoyed the status of obligatory legal documents which allows agencies and citizens. It obviously contradicts the Constitution fundamentals and is a serious hindrance to the development of the economy in Russia.
The article is devoted to the problem of introducing, changing and trajectories of further development of the higher education state standard in public and municipal governance (bachelor and 5-year specialist programs). The basic reasons for transition from 5-year program towards bachelor one have been discovered. Division of bachelor degree programs in public and municipal governance and management is argued on the basis of their competences difference. Further preserving of the state standard for the bachelor degree in public and municipal governance and unified development of the bachelor curricula in different Russian universities are not found possible. Likely trends of their divergence have been traced. The complicated way of formation of the public administration bachelor program in the Higher School of Economics has been presented as an example.
Th e article is aimed at analysing budget risks related to activities of development institutions and ways of reducing such risks. Th e paper looks at fi nancing models of development institutions in Russia, including the following models: budget fi nancing, public guarantees, capital contributions and concessional deposits. Th e analysis of the Russian development institutions shows that, although, in general all measures of the government support are in place, in a number of key organizations there is a mismatch between market liabilities and non-market assets, which create budget risks. Th e list of such organizations includes Vnesheconombank, Russian Agricultural Bank and DOM.RF (Russian Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending). Th e article further analyses the case of budget support for the Vnesheconombank in 2015–2018, which is the largest case of public support for the development institution in Russia. Th e authors come to the conclusion that the main source of risk is political interference in the activities of the development bank and absence of compensation for fi nancing of low-return projects. Based on the analysis of international best practices the recommendations are given on reduction of budget risks related to development institutions, including such policies as provision of public guarantee, loan portfolio breakdown into subsidized and non-subsidized loans; regular budget transfers and concessional deposits. Th e article concludes that in order to reduce budget risks related to development institutions in Russia the Government needs to develop a transparent framework of compensation evaluation and establishment of mechanism of regular compensation for their activities
One of the key goals of modern government’s social policy is to increase the quality of social services provision and, accordingly, the satisfaction level of citizens as social services consumers. Th e choice of methods and tools in order to solve this challenge is restricted to existing resources of government agencies: budget, personnel, information technologies, etc. Our research demonstrates that independent evaluation mechanism for social sphere organizations’ (SSO) work quality remains of a high demand in the worldwide context. In this paper the authors provide the methodology and results of the independent quality evaluation mechanism for social sphere organizations in Russia. We used secondary analysis of the sociological data arrays and Russian Statistics Service microdata as well as citizens’ opinions expressed in the Internet, in order to develop our methodology about citizens’ preferences for making choice among SSO. We used a comparative study to outline international experience in SSO independent evaluation process. We outlined key citizens’ satisfaction factors with social services provision by applying Kano model. We prove the multysubjective and multifactor nature of SSO independent quality evaluation.
Nonprofits play a growing role in social service delivery as a result of privatization of local public services through contracting out by the public sector. This paper explores a competitive bidding process in eight regions of Russian Federation where local governments entered into during 2011-2012. The author reviews reasons to involve nonprofit organisations in a quasi-market as local government social service contractors. The non-distribution constraints and mission of nonprofits organizations tend to preclude exploitation of purchasers and consumers. Thus, this type of social services providers can be more appropriate for needs of the society. Then bidding documents have been analyzed in terms of a type of providers’ ownership, public or private one, levels of nonprofits activity and nonprofits’ competitiveness. The findings indicate considerable discrepancies between numbers of social services competitive tenders in the regions in question. Types of social services that the local governments procure vary significantly from region to region. They range from strictly standardized services to credence ones. These differences are supposed to be an essential factor of nonprofits’ participation in procurement because of characteristics of nonprofit organizations. The most active nonprofits’ involvement has been found out in regions where procured services are the same the nonprofits usually produce. Three types of nonprofits’ behavior in the regional quasi-markets have been discovered. Firstly, they take an active part in the competitive bidding and compete with business and public organizations successfully. Secondly, they actively participate in this process but compete with similar producers only. Finally, they are rather inactive as potential local government contractors.
The article is based on the empirical research done during 2008-2010 within the framework of research projects of the Project-academic laboratory of the municipal management at the National Research University High School of Economics on municipal territories of Krasnodar, Tver, Kostroma, Kaliningrad, Rostov, Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk. Th e research found that municipal territorial structure is unbalanced especially in city districts. Th e article considers such a phenomenon of the territorial structure as territorial forms independent of geographical regions and the subjects of the Russian Federation. Th e existing forms of city districts are characterized and a forecast of possible prospects of their development is made in the article.
This article aims to identify some factors of legal regulation that put limits on the use of centralized methods in law and, in a broader sense, in social governance, primarily factors that inevitably produce legal indeterminacy and make a law-applying entity act at its discretion.
The article is based on a hypothesis that putting a safety hedge around the deductive model of law application with the unawareness of legal indeterminacy and the need for discretionary action on the part of a law-applying entity results in this subject being ousted from the theory of legal reasoning and legal theory in general, primarily in Russian legal discourse.
This has direct practical effects as it hides the availability for a law-applying entity of more than one option for a decision on a specific case and consequently relieves it of the need to publicly explain the motives for its choice. For this reason, any attempt to sustain the illusion that a specific decision in the application of law is deductible from law will have the opposite effect, namely enlargement of discretionary powers, inconsistent and arbitrary judicial and administrative practices, and a less significant role of social governance mechanisms that are based on general rules.
Consequently, any attempt to give a paramount role to centralized regulatory methods in government will have internal limitations that stem from such intrinsic indeterminacy.
The article also purports to systematize arguments underlying the thesis of inevitable indeterminacy and partial autonomy of a law-applying entity in taking decisions regardless of what a law stipulates.
The article analyzes factors such as the linguistic indeterminacy of stipulation, the deliberate ambiguity of a specific law (e.g. the use of “bendable” rules or legal standards and value judgments), the incompletion or contradictoriness of a law, the discretionary selection of significant facts and discretionary qualifications of specific cases, legal dysfunction, contradiction between the objectives of a law and the results of its application, inevitable exceptions to rules, and indeterminate principles for the interpretation of law and for filling legal gaps.
The reasons for the use of administrative discretion include more extensive state regulation, wider use of redistribution, changes in the nature of tasks to be addressed in public administration and higher standards for their implementation, more sophisticated decision-making technology, the need for law-applying entities to have better knowledge in various specialist fields and a more prominent role of specialists, limited resources, and the incrementalist style of decision-making.
This article identifies and analyses the reasons that have led to the failures of the financial policy at the municipal level. Based on the author’s own empirical research, it highlights the major reasons leading to an ineffective financial management at the municipal level, such as (1) failure of a constructive dialogue between different authorities, (2) a negative impact of personal characteristics of the head of the municipality on the quality of management, and (3) lack of incentives in municipal officials to increase their revenue base. There are some recommendations at the end of article that, in the author’s opinion, can lead to a higher efficiency of the municipal financial policy.
Reorganizing the social services market to allow for its access non-state providers is a major innovation in Russia. Welfare mix concepts give a theoretical justification to this innovation. The key element of justification is the demonstration of advantages NPOs have as services providers compared to state-owned or private organizations fulfilling similar functions. However, a more careful assessment of the outlook of Russian NPOs on the emerging social services market requires an analysis of their comparative disadvantages as well. This paper aims at investigating organizational weaknesses of Russian nonprofit providers of social services funded by the state drawing on foreign and Russian experience of practices in cross-sectoral cooperation. The paper first addresses some key comparative disadvantages rooted in the economic and financial foundations of NPOs. The authors then investigate weaknesses related to the level of professionalism in social services delivery by NPOs to suggest some recommendations on measures the government and the nonprofit sector respectively could contemplate to compensate for NPOs’ comparative disadvantages, so that the potential capacity of NPOs to generate innovative solutions is best utilized in the interests of a more efficient social policy. For the verification of theory and for international comparisons of practices of cross-sectoral cooperation Russian sociological data gathered in the course of a long-term NRU HSE project on Monitoring Russian Civil Society are used.
Federal legislation provides only minimal and insuffi cient regulation of the statusand activities of the regional audit institutions in Russia. Due to this themain developments in the regulation of state audit and regional audit institutionsin Russia happen on the regional level.Th e article describes the process of adoption and the main features of thenew Law of the City of Moscow “On the Chamber of Control and Accounts ofMoscow” including aims and powers of this public body, its independence and accountability,types of its activities, and the process of planning of its activities.