The author analyzes problems and prospects of moral and civic education in Russian schools and considers two different approaches with regard to «value-unfree» or moral education: propaganda, on the one hand, and «open» education - on the other. The first approach involves a simple solution: mass education, integration of verbalized values in school curricula, imposition of unified standards, «spiritual» patterns and imperatives. This paradigm reduces the cultural diversity of society and the differential value orientations and simplifies representations of the structure of the system of values and mechanisms of its formation. The question of educational technologies and methods that would take into account individual experience of students stays behind the scenes. «Spirituality» is identified with religion. The second, «experience-based» approach is grounded on the idea of mediated formation of values - i. e. the formation is a natural process and values are formed through practical activities, experience, thoughts and reflections. The author emphasizes the need to shift the focus from the total forms of moral education to a more dynamic and individualized approach to educational activities.
The first part of the article presents the main principles regulating the formation of an information analytical system and describes the purposes of such a system. This would make a comparative analysis of regional education systems possible. A highly detailed description of separate components of the system is given. These components are: methodology, organization, information, presentation, and software, each meant to complete its own specific tasks. The authors describe the thematic structure of integral and thematic ratings, and the system of specially designed indicators that are used in calculating ratings. The second part of the paper shows how to use the ratings to analyze education development. Certain aspects of pre"school education in the Russian regions are analyzed for illustration. The article should be of interest to anyone interested in the methodology of the comparative analysis of regional education systems.
In 2004.2007, experts from the Institute of Knowledge, Statistics and Economics of HSE developed an information analytical system for rating the education development in the regions of Russia. The research was contracted for by the Russian Ministry of Science and Education and the State Committee on Education. However, it is clear that the rating is only one of many possible tools in comparing regions. Therefore, in 2008, the scope of the task was broadened: based on the previous research, the authors have started forming a system for the analysis of the development of education systems in the federal subjects of Russia. Some results of the analysis are presented in this article. Work in this direction is being continued. The current task is basically to develop a system for monitoring interregional differences in the education sphere, which would include a system for the retrieval, processing, storage, analysis, and representation of data on this topic.
Using IT and communicative technologies in education. Statistical survey The article presents a statistical characterization of the technical infrastructure of general and professional education institutions (availability of modern computers, internet access and parameters of the latter), as well as estimates of the use of information and communication technologies by teachers in Russia and federal subjects of Russia in the academic years 2006/2007-2009/2010. Some Russian indicators are compared to those of European Union countries. As the information source, the authors used data of federal observations of the Russian Federal Service for Government Statistics (Rosstat) on the education statistics, methodological and analytical findings of the Institute of Statistical Studies and Economics of HSE, as well as materials of the Monitoring of the Education Economy, conducted by HSE on behalf of the Education and Science Ministry of Russia.
The paper suggests an approach to assessing performance of educational institutions with regard to their social specifics. To develop this approach, the authors relied upon 1) results of numerous studies proving correlations between student performance and contextual factors (both in Russia and abroad); 2) foreign colleagues’ experience of solving similar problems; and 3) the idea of providing minimum required information to enable such assessments in contemporary Russia. The fundamental idea lying behind the proposed assessment tool is that, having necessary data at hand, one can identify empirically stable correlations between student performance and contextual factors (e. g. different social composition of students). In research practice, these correlations were revealed through multiple regression analysis. Results of such analysis—established empirical correlations—may then be used to “discount” formal progress, i. e. to have justifiably higher expectations about institutions in more favorable contexts and lower expectations about those in less favorable situations. The authors think over two ways of using this information: based either on a formula or on a specific index (the index of school social well-being) they have elaborated. They also draw attention towards possible constraints associated with using these tools and touch upon a more global problem of considering contextual factors in assessing the quality of education in Russia.
The article analyzes the varying efficiency of the same strategies and methods of development of general education systems. A review of Western practices and research conducted by the Education Development Institute of the HSE show that development mechanisms are particularly efficient in schools situated in specific reform zones. The authors call them development zones.
Studying the consequences of performance pay. Comments to Victor Lavys article «Performance pay and teachers effort, productivity and grading ethics» The author reviews the principal directions of the research on the effects of performance pay in schools on students grades and on the behavior of teachers. Analyzed are methodological particularities of various studies. A conclusion is made concerning the prospective usefulness of V. Lavys methods of the evaluation of new teacher pay systems.
учителя, Мотивация, стимулирование, оплата по результату, рейтинги, принципы оценивания учеников, Социальная политика, Teachers, Motivation, incentive creation, performance pay, Ratings, grading principles, social policies
It is widely believed that higher education in Russia has become almost universal and more people go to universities compared to most European countries. In this paper we explore this issue empirically with the Russian and European census data and data from the Trajectories in Education and Careers (TREC), a longitudinal cohort study. According to the 2010 census, only 34% of people aged between 25 and 34 in Russia have university degrees, which is nearly the same as in most Eastern European countries and slightly fewer than in Western Europe. The TREC data show that only about 50% of 2012 ninthgrade graduates were university students in 2015. The expansion of higher education in Russia has been in line with the overall European trends. Similar to other countries, there have been changes to the gender composition of university students in Russia over the last two decades, with girls being more likely to attend university than boys. The analysis of social backgrounds of students with different educational trajectories reveals a considerable social inequality within the Russian education system. Eighty-four percent of school graduates with university-educated parents are admitted to university, as compared to only 32% of children from less-educated families. Graduation from ninth grade represents an educational fork that is crucial for inequality, as children from less socially advantaged families tend to opt for vocational education at this stage. Graduation from eleventh grade is a less important educational transition: at least 80% of high school students get admitted to university after graduating from 11th grade.
The authors analyze excellence initiatives to boost the university sector implemented in the past fifteen years in different countries of the world. On the basis of the international experiences and evaluation of recent reforms of the tertiary education system in Russia the authors come to the conclusion that competitiveness projects of the Russian universities should have the following features: focus on the development of multi-disciplinary centers of excellence and postgraduate programs in leading universities; targeted funding to support promising young researchers; emphasis on internationalization; governance reform.