In the article political views and political activities of Old Believers of the main soglasiyas (denominations) in 1917 are analyzed. Being till March 1917 on monarchist positions, after Nikolay's renunciation Old Believers supported Provisional government with enthusiasm, with mistrust having treated Soviets and revolutionary parties. They considered that the Provisional government is legitimate, and socialists "sow a distemper" and "excesses". The attitude towards Bolsheviks and personally to Lenin, Trotsky and other heads parties which were considered as the German agents was especially negative. Old Believers, having had all freedoms and opportunities, developed vigorous confessional activity. Also, having combined efforts of almost all soglasias, they developed the uniform Political program, including, for participation in the Constituent assembly. On the major questions the program was close to the cadet, but chiliastic colored. A part of Old Belief peasants did not support her. October events were apprehended by Old Believers as "scourge of God". However they did not take any actions, hoping for the Constituent assembly which was given sacral character.
The review analyzes the approach of Italian philologist Guido Carpi to the origin and meaning of F.M. Dostoevsky's economic ideas in the context of the drastic economic changes that occured in Russia during the Great reforms of the late 1870s and 1860s.