International trade is in continuous development which means there must also be responsive developments in the international economic institutions which regulate it. The authors conclude that the initiatives of international organizations in the global regulation of e-commerce are far behind business practices. Despite the dynamic development of the digital economy, international institutions have not yet been able to work out control mechanisms at the multilateral level. Therefore, today the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a number of other international organizations are faced with the need to develop new mechanisms for regulating trade in conditions of digitalization. This will largely depend not only on the new rules of trade policy, but also on the future of these organizations and their placement in the hierarchy of influence of international institutions.
This article illustrates that countries are able to regulate various aspects of e-commerce more comprehensively at the bilateral and plurilateral levels. The use of digital trade regulations developed at the regional and plurilateral levels, as well as the cooperation of countries in other fora— Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of 20 (G20) — may facilitate the creation of future WTO agreements governing digital trade.
The article presents the methodology of a comprehensive research on HEIs’ role in regional development. The methodology was adapted to study the North-Eastern Federal University experience in facilitating Far Eastern Federal District economic and social development. To evaluate the university’s role in facilitating regional development three key dimensions were examined: innovation, education and research, socio-cultural sphere. These dimensions correspond to the federal universities’ functions, and meet development trends of Far Eastern Federal District. A toolkit for analysis of the North-Eastern Federal University development programme effectiveness was developed in the framework of the research. Evaluation of Far Eastern Federal District social and economic development trends and implementation of the North-Eastern Federal University development programme enabled to provide recommendations for the university future development. The research outcomes are of applied nature and can be used for elaboration of the university’s strategic development concept, and amendment of the ongoing university’s development programme. The conducted research creates foundation for the university’s effective contribution to the territory development. The research was conducted in the framework of the project “Analysis of the NEFU’s role in the development of the territory on the basis of the OECD methodology adapted for Russian universities to develop recommendations for enhancement of university’s influence on innovative, technological, educational and socio-cultural development of the region”, implemented within the contract № 1537-09/12, 24.09.2012 by the Institute of International Organisations of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics” and Department for Strategic Development of North-Eastern Federal University in 2012.
The last two or three years have become a time of an unprecedented rise of interest to Eurasia. The Russian initiative to create Greater Eurasia, which is seen as the main conceptual framework for promoting various cooperation projects in the region, is often criticized for the lack of concrete content. Given the growing number of regional initiatives including from China and India Russia needs not only to formulate an attractive idea, but also to show its relevance and efficiency. Despite the absence of objective historical conditions for its implementation the concept of Greater Eurasia can become a rational practical embodiment of a wide range of development and security priorities for many countries in the region. The problem of the study is the absence of objective prerequisites for the creation of Greater Eurasia while there is a wide range of subjective reasons. The article examines the preconditions for the emergence of Greater Eurasia as well as various ways of this concept’s perception and political interpretation. For historical reasons projects for the consolidation of Eurasia have largely remained on paper, but the current regional and global trends create relevant conditions for their implementation. The study analyzes the content of Eurasian integration and possible formats of cooperation within it. Particular emphasis is made on security issues, economic interaction, and the development of institutions in the Eurasian space. The authors stress the need for reform of the OSCE in order to bring its activities closer to the current geopolitical conditions. The prospects for the development of the SCO and its role in Greater Eurasia are also under consideration. Special attention is paid to relations with potential participants of Greater Eurasia project (including European countries) and non-regional actors. Eurasian integration is also analyzed from the European integration perspective. According to authors’ estimations, in EAUE there is a need for greater attention to the issue of state sovereignty (similar to the European experience of country representatives and expert groups) and strengthening the institutional capacity of organization.
The authors explore attempts of the Russian authorities on modernisation in three related areas: technological, economic and political. Mechanisms for technological modernisation and political system reforms are analyzed. The paper also studies the role of partnerships with international organizations in facilitation of the modernisation processes.
The presented paper discusses problems of inequality in Mexico. Despite intensive economic growth, the Mexican society is one of the most unequal in the world. According to the National council for the evaluation of social development 51% of Mexicans are poor. And Mexico inequality indicators are the highest in Latin America.
The author examines social measures on reducing inequality taken in post-revolutionary Mexico (1940 – 1990) and new liberal programmes.
The efforts on building “welfare state” during 1940-1990 led to improvement of living standards, widening access to education and health care, but did not help to overcome inequality. The gap between rural and urban population was increasing. After the serious economic crisis of the 80’s, Mexico accelerated its economic liberalization. To reduce inequality social programmes for supporting vulnerable social groups: Indians, women, senior citizens were launched. However, despite the enthusiasm of the government and relatively good economic performance, poverty was not eradicated.
It is concluded that liberalizing trade and embracing globalization is not enough to tackle the inequality problems and the Mexican government should implement policies to equalize opportunities.