The article introduces a historical-sociological research project reconstructing intellectual and institutional transformations of post-soviet social sciences in the last 25 years. The projects ambition was to achieve this aim via applying classical community study research strategy and various methods derived from social science history to the case of St. Petersburg sociologists. We identified 622 individuals as St. Petersburg sociologists and traced records of their institutional trajectories, appearance in print, citing behaviour, social networks, political attitudes, sources of income, professional authorities, and attention spaces through 25 years.
This article presents an empirical study of the economic activity of the population. appearing in the form of craft s, that is the entrepreneur’s self-supporting activity aimed at household subsistence. Primary forms of such activity are self-employment, individual entrepreneurship and hiring. Th e purpose of this article is to describe the relationship between archaic and modern types of craft s in the local communities. As a result, the author elaborates the concept of the craft evolution. Th e craft s were diff erentiated into archaic (traditional) and modern. Archaic craft s exist for a long time (centuries and millennia) almost unchanged; they use natural and agricultural resources, and are oriented to old markets. Modern craft s have recently emerged; they use new resources, and are oriented to new markets. Th e fi eldwork was carried out in local communities in the south of Russia (Krasnodar region, Taman peninsula and Anapa district), where in 11 settlements (the town of Temryuk, 7 stanitsas (rural settlements), and 3 small urban settlements), materials were collected on all types of informal and formal occupations of the population. Th ey are gathered by methods of direct observation and non-formalized focused interview. In most local communities craft activity is diverse. Everywhere there are from one to three or more dozens of craft s. Most craft smen practice informal employment. In every local community there are both archaic (traditional) and modern craft s. Estimating the prevalence of household activities and the relationship between archaic and modern craft s allows us to identify three contrast groups of local communities: (1) communities with the prevalence of archaic craft s; (2) communities with an equally large number of both archaic and modern types of craft s; (3) communities with a reduction in craft activity, in which the population reoriented to modern craft s, which are organized on the basis of abundant resources from tourists. Th e comparison of the number of craft s with self-assessment of the population life quality shows that labor-consuming and not fully resourced archaic (traditional) craft s contribute to maintaining the high resilience of local communities against negative external infl uences. Th e reorientation of households to modern (usually abundant) resources with simultaneous abandonment of archaic economic practices and the reduction of the total number of craft s in the local community is accompanied (or leads) to a decrease in community’s stability. It is manifested in the assessment of the quality of relations between people, and in the criminalization of the local community (the growth of crime, drug addiction, prostitution). Th e author proposes a model of the craft s development the basis of which is the ratio of archaic (traditional) and modern types of craft s in the economic behavior of the population. Th e model allows predicting the dependence of the types of craft s in the local communities on the nature and features of the available resource base. It also allows assessing the development trends of the household’s craft activity, external threats, and the risks to the stability of local cocieties.
The article explores the professionalization process in the field of sports in Russia. It is based on empirical research which consisted in biographic interviews with professional tennis players and secondary analysis of publications. The theoretical background of the article belongs to sociology of professions and sociology of sports. A brief review of sociology of sports as independent academic discipline is made. The article shows relations between sportsmen from different sports, mass communication and leisure. Authors make conceptual distinction between amateur and professional tennis and show how the social status of parents influences the success of tennis players. This research pioneers in the academic study of tennis players professional environment.
The paper deals with how family friendly workplace should be and how it organized . Problem of work-family balance problematized on different level such as State family policy discourse, an organization and everyday practice of working parents. This article will show the differences in the positions of the employer on the need and ways to create a family-friendly workplace, as well as formal and informal types of support that are accessed by parents in order to optimally combine of professional and family roles. On empirical date (interviews with head of companies, HR specialist and working mothers in different Russian companies) the author divides two types of family friendly workplace, which included formal and informal support measures toward working parents.
The paper aims at analyzing conceptual approaches in Museum Studies and their development. Definition of the museum, its functions and effects is not stable and unchallenged. Likewise, subject area of Museum studies is diverse in terms of disciplinary perspectives, premises, methods and approaches. Transformation in cultural life, as well as notorious cases and outstanding academic research works have influenced how museums are conceptualized. Literature analysis proves that in the field of Museum Studies the dominant approach regards power relations. It often uses concepts developed in the works of Michel Foucault. Power relations may be viewed in three ways: first, as the “civilizing” or disciplinary museum, second, as the representing museum, and third, as institute that reproduces inequality. However, we argue that in the last two decades, there has been a tendency to focus on agency and microlevel. Consequently, there are research questions that emphasize actor and analysis of her activity, reception and reaction. These two alternative approaches to museum – power relations and macrostructures, on the one hand, and agency and everyday phenomena on the other, - are revealed in tree thematic subfields of research: museum materiality, knowledge construction, and communication. In conclusion, we present recent transformations in social science and museum practice and formulate new questions for future research.
The article deals with the problem of discontent with machine, known as a problem of “computer rage.” Traditionally the problem is interpreted by reference to the psychology of the user who responds to machine malfunctions that interrupt his or her goal achievement. It is assumed that reaction to these failures is expressed in the form of utterances and physical actions addressed to the machine as a living being. This article argues that it is exactly the opposite: the computer rage indicates that people interact with computers as mechanisms that are different from human beings. In confirmation of this point, the data on the interaction of callers with a telephone robot are analyzed. They demonstrate that, if we consider discontent with machine as an interactional phenomenon, then it becomes clear that users do not perceive the machine as an interactional partner similar to humans. The main difference of human-machine interaction is that users in this case express annoyance in the way that they do not use in the interactions with humans: they refuse to be polite, directly formulate the necessary actions, and turn their utterances into commands. The tendency to a “command” way of interacting with a machine shows that users are frustrated not by the impossibility of achieving a goal, but by a failure in the organization of interaction with a machine as a machine.
The analysis is focused on the particularities of the reform of social provision for children left without parental care in Russian regions. Theoretically, the paper considers the reform as a process of deinstitutionalization, implying the transformation of the scope and the content of the activity of public and non-state organisations. The key goal is to identify conditions of the inertia of the deinstitutionalization. The first part of the article is devoted to the literature observation to formulate assumptions about factors that impact or impede deinstitutionalization of child’s care. Three assumptions are formulated about the influence of the social-economic development, conservative or innovative ideology and the activity of the nonprofit organisations and associations of citizens. The second part of the article works with the statistical data on the scope and the positive dynamic of the reduction of state providers and particularities of the attraction of non-state providers. The empirical analysis shows the scope of retrenchment of the institutional care in various Russian regions and particularities of non-state activity (nonprofit organisations and private companies). The analysis enabled to identify three main types of nonprofit organisations involved as service providers: SOS villages, associations of foster families and civic organisations affiliated with the Russian Orthodox Church. In the third part of the article, the detailed empirical analysis of two Russian regions with the largest scope of institutionalized care for children (Ulianovskaia oblast’ and Amurskaia oblast’) has been conducted. On the basis of these two regional cases assumptions about the social-economic and political factors have been examined.
Edward P. Thompson wrote one of the most important works touching on the origins of the temporal consciousness of industrial capitalism. Thompson showed how difficult was the process of acquiring a new attitude towards time and the formation of temporal subjectivity necessary for the reproduction of capitalist relations. At the same time, contemporary transformations of economic organization and social life call into question the established ways of dealing with time. Returning to Thompson's work and its reception will allow us to better understand these transformations and to inquire whether we are now witnessing a historical break in the temporal regime. This article is a critical overview focusing on Thompson's conceptual resources and subsequent discussions concerning his work. In particular, 1) explication of Thompson's critique of economism by means of displacement of economic ontology by the sociological relationship between value and time; 2) the conceptualization of the transition from "task orientation" to "clock orientation"; 3) critical review of various causal elements that contribute to the formation of temporal subjectivity; 4) comparison of Thompson's theses with modern arguments focusing on the transformation of labor organization and the formation of the corresponding attitude to time.
The key problem of the social and economic situation in post-Soviet Russia implies that its future and the prospects of development of the new efficient post-industrial economy to a large extent depend on the successful creation of social and professional group of managers. In the article the primary attention is drawn to the analysis of socioeconomic characteristics of Russian managers, their social and occupational status dynamics, and labor market positions. The empirical base includes series of representative surveys of Russian population, conducted in January 1994, November 2002, and December 2006 under the direction of Professor O. Shkaratan, as well as the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey database (RLMS 2006). We also relied on the information from a number of in-depth interviews with Moscow representatives of managers (conducted in 2005-2008).
The article deals with comparative analysis of family policies towards fatherhood. The author analyzes how family policy in different countries is a mens friendly. Contemporary family policies in different Western European countries include a specific set of support, addressed to father after the child birth. A leave to care for the child is an example which shows that the family policy creates different models of fatherhood. In conclusion the author argues that gender-based analysis of family policy, along with the study of the position of women with children should include fathers who have certain rights and responsibilities.
Methods of network analysis are used in this paper for mapping the local academic community of St. Petersburg sociologists. The survey data on relations between individual scholars serve as a guide in reconstruction of the communitys network history as well as a system of independent variables in accounting for differences between its various natural zones. In this manner, the paper explores the points of convergence between Chicago school social ecology and modern social network analysis.
The article discuss the structure of virtual communities existing within the social network site «VK» from the perspective of social inequality problem and the issue of «digital divide». Analysis of the structure of online groups formed around HIV/AIDS topic shows, despite the infrastructure factors of a social media platform and consolidating nature of communities the participants’ hierarchy is based on two key resources - the attention and social capital. These resources are distributed extremely unequally according to a power law, and it leads to significant differentiation of users. Thus, social inequality appears in online communities in the form of a network inequality. From the viewpoint of «digital divide» theory the network inequality can be interpreted as a third, deeper level of the digital divide of society.