A method for constructing traveling wave type microwave device with a transverse interaction, forming a uniform temperature distribution over the volume of polymer composite rods is proposed. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the temperature distribution of the rod material are presented. Advantages of microwave technologies of curing of polymeric composite materials in comparison with traditional methods are shown.
In article it is considered engineering confectioning of materials for sewing products. The factors, influencing stability of a design of host of sewing product, interaction of indicators of properties of components of a package of materials are investigated. Also are experimentally investigated confection and technological ways of strengthening of a design of host; problem zones of host are revealed during operation. Indicators of breaking load of host "pocket" from materials of identical fibrous structure of one assortment groups are analyzed. The technique of research of a design of host of sewing product, based on the vector appendix of loading is offered. Recommendations about improvement of quality of a design of host of sewing product at a stage of confectioning of materials are presented. The conclusion, that use of new textile materials is impossible without a scientific technique of confectioning is drawn
The influence of doping with vanadium on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite films deposited on silicon substrates has been investigated. It is found that the material tested is more likely brittle rather than plastic and that the hardness and elastic modulus of an undoped film are somewhat higher than those of vanadium-doped ones. With an increase in the Poisson ratio from 0.2 to 0.3, the hardness of undoped sample increases by 14%, and the elastic modulus decreases by 3.5%. Doping films with vanadium leads to a monotonic decrease in the elastic modulus. The concentration dependence of microhardness is complex: its minimum is observed at 8.8 at % V. It is established that the parameter of relative elastic strain energy of samples under indentation under investigation depends only slightly on film's Poisson ratio.
The article considers the problems of engineering confectioning materials for clothing, analyzed the organization of the process of confectioning for garment production, the factors influencing process of confectioning are revealed.
We studied the structure, IR absorption spectra, the spectral characteristics of photoluminescence and morphology of cerium- and terbium-doped orthoborates of gadolinium and yttrium obtained by hydrothermal synthesis at 200°C, as well as solid solutions of orthoborates on the basis of yttrium, gadolinium, and lutetium with composition RECe0.01Tb0.1BO3 (RE = Lu0.5Gd0.39, Lu0.5Y0.39, and Y0.5Gd0.39). The X-ray diffraction spectrum of yttrium orthoborate Y1 – x – yCexTbyBO3 is described by a hexagonal lattice with space group P63/m, which, after annealing at 970°C, transforms into a monoclinic lattice with space group C2/c. High-temperature annealing of the studied orthoborates leads to a multiple, more than two orders of magnitude, increase in the luminescence intensity of Tb3+ ions when the samples are excited in the absorption band of cerium ions. This effect is the result of a significant increase in the concentration of Ce3+ ions in the orthoborates at high temperatures. It is shown that the luminescence of terbium ions is due to energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+, which proceeds with high efficiency (∼85%) by the mechanism of dipole-dipole interaction between cerium and terbium.
Assessing the incomes of the Russian population in the 18th century is one of the urgent tasks in the economic history of pre-industrial Russia. The difficulty of the task is determined by the existence of serfdom in Russia, since it preserved an archaic economy with its barter exchange. This article presents the first results of the project “Wages and Prices in Russia of the 18th century”. The author compares daily wages in cash of peasants-laborers involved in construction in Moscow and Tobolsk, as two capitals of the European part of Russia and Siberia, respectively. Then a comparison of the calculated incomes of peasant-migrants and the costs of living in these cities applying the methodology of Robert Allen is made. The main source of research was the books of revenues and expenditures of the monasteries, which were located in these cities. It is demonstrated that in the second half of the 18th century, the well-being of the peasant-migrants is noticeably reduced in Moscow and slightly less in Tobolsk. The results show that the study of the economic development of Russia should focus on the study of regions, since the vast territory of Russia and the unresolved issues of market integration, including the labor market, hamper an adequate determination of the level of economic development of the empire as a whole. And it is especially important that the results obtained cannot be explained in any way only by the presence or absence of serfdom in a particular region of Russia.
A model is developed that makes it possible to analytically determine the threshold current of a microdisk laser with consideration for its self-heating as a function of the ambient temperature and the microlaser diameter. It is shown that there exists a minimum microdisk diameter determined by self-heating, up to which continuous-wave lasing can be reached at a given temperature. Another manifestation of the self-heating effect is the existence of the ultimate working temperature, which is lower, the smaller the microlaser diameter. Reasonable agreement between the predictions of the model and the available experimental data is shown.
A model that calculates the rates of cooling of liquid metal over the casting section atthe liquidus temperature by the finite difference method is created and programmed.By the cooling rates, the empirical formula determines the grain size. The following process parameters are taken into account: casting and molding materials, cast and mold dimensions, their initial temperatures, and the coefficient of contact thermal resistance.
This article provides an overview of existing methods for assessing the quality of garments at the stage of design. The article considers the absolute, product-oriented, consumer-oriented, producer-oriented and value-based approaches to classification of quality criteria for the design and manufacturing of light industry products. The author analyzed traditional models for assessing the quality of garments, including methods of expert assessments. The article deals with a set of indicators that determine the quality of garments. The list of indicators includes the perfection of the technical and aesthetic performance of the product, socio-economic indicators, functionality, functional reliability and safety of a garment. A conceptual model for designing the quality of a garment was developed by the author. The process is presented in the form of a function, the arguments of which are the organization of the process of designing and manufacturing a garment; garment manufacturing; confectioning of materials; garment operating conditions; garment’s design parameters; garment manufacturing technology; garment pricing; social factors. The article provides a rationale for using artificial intelligence technologies to solve the problems of selecting optimal design proposals, manufacturing technology, materials and other parameters. The article also considers possibilities of a three-dimensional clothing design digital platform, which contains a range of technical characteristics that ensure the implementation of a conceptual model for designing a garment quality, including design and technological documentation for the production of a batch of products; artistic-aesthetic and physical-mechanical properties of materials; garment’s design parameters; garment pricing in terms of the materials and accessories costs. The author proposes ways of introducing artificial intelligence technologies into the process of quality assessment in the garments design.
The article considers the engineering packaging materials for garments, experimentally investigated technological ways of strengthening of the construction site; presented recommendations for improving unit of garments on the stage of choosing materials.
This work describes the monitoring of structural reinforced concrete elements with additional strengthening elements. For reinforcing, the metal channels with rigid connection to the reinforced concrete beams were used. Subject. This work describes the study of potentialities of geodetic and strain-measuring monitoring during the operation of strengthened concrete beams with additional reinforcement elements when static loading. Purpose. Development of monitoring systems for factual work of reinforced concrete beams; assessment of reliability of the results obtained. The initial materials for this study were the data obtained from geodetic and strain-measuring monitoring in the process of a stage-by-stage static loading of reinforced concrete beams. Results. The time dependences of the deflection of reinforcement elements in the structures under reinforcement are obtained when their stage-by-stage static loading. Conclusions. The possibility of the studied methods application is found to be proved for the monitoring of concrete structures with additional reinforcement elements.