The authors compare the normative views of Russian and French students concerning the President of the country. The research is based on 200 interviews conducted in Moscow and in Paris. In the majority of cases students offered similar key features of an ideal president. However, the research shows that the category of an ideal president has different meaning among the young of Russia and France. So similar at fi rst glance, the images of the ideal French and Russian leaders, in fact, refl ect the different national views on the personal qualities which are necessary for the head of modern state.
The author investigates a phenomenon of development of ideologies in a historical context. So the transition of the academic historiography from positivistic methodology to methodology of the linguistic analysis is considered. Linguistic analysis is presented by the theory of speech asts and history of concepts. Accordingly, ideologies appear as cognitive mechanisms and simultaneously cognitive political outlook fi lters.
This paper considers subjective beliefs in luck application to the theory of decision making under risk. Economic and psychological literature on this subject is analyzed in order to provide foundations and methodological guide for this application. It is also shown why ignoring these beliefs may result in significant biases for empirical analysis. Particularly it is shown that this ignoring may bias risk aversion parameters in individual utility function: risk averse person can be mistaken for risk loving one and vice versa. Finally, it is concluded that it is possible to apply beliefs in luck to decision making theory using concepts of subjective probabilities and stochastic dominance.
The essence of Islamism, one of the most important global issues in our time is poorly understood and it is bein interpreted differently and quite controversialy. It causes discussions concearning the line of Islamism to Islam as a religion on the one hand and to politics on the other hand. In the latter case, it is not clear which type of political currents are associated with this phenomenon. There is less certainty in the matter of what the speci c manifestations of this global threat in different regions of the worldase. Therefore, in this respect we are most interested in Russia and its regions. This article focuses on existing and probable approaches to the solution of raised issues.
The article discusses the views of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson on the causes of global gaps in well-being , the nature of development and underdevelopment. The work identifies the most fundamental moments in their interpretation of historical events, especially their use of the institutional approach to the explanation of human history. It is underlined that Acemoglu and Robinson assign the key role to the division of institutions into extractive and inclusive one, the close relationship of political and economic institutions that is responsible for creating the vicious circle in the case of the extractive, and the virtuous circle in the case of their inclusive nature. It is noted that the authors emphasize the random type of historical development in connection with the accidental occurrence of critical junctures causing institutional shifts. The attention is drawn to the fact that they bind the long-term sus-tainable economic growth with the presence of inclusive political institutions (democracy) and on this basis do not see any prospects for China to become a global leader.