This paper aims to explore the dominant model of the national identity of Russians. Drawing on the national representative survey data conducted in Autumn 2015 by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Science, the author comes to a conclusion that Russians demonstrate a socio-cultural consensus in their attitudes towards state and society. Russians perceive society as Power passing the responsibility for the sustainable and equitable development to the state. The statism of Russia is a bottom-up phenomenon since people of Russia overwhelmingly support a priority of the society’s interests over the ones of an individual. The majority perceives Russia as a unique civilization that should avoid the Western way of modernization. The idea of the ‘unique way’ is a distinct feature of the national identity of Russians; it plays a pivotal role in the societal cohesion of the whole society. In this model, the state is considered to be responsible for any breach in the society, in particular for the injustice and exploitation. That’s why the growing number of violations of the rights of Russian workers increases the risks of societal conflicts and lead to a delegitimisation of the official authorities. In conclusion, the author suggests the state being more responsible for the Russian nation in the sense of protecting the population from the structural violence and exploitation.
In sample surveys, open-ended question is the only data collection tool that allows respondents to express their opinions in their own words — the advantage is especially manifested while rapid social changes when structured questionnaires do not keep pace. The main shortcoming of the open-ended question logically continues its advantage: for the researcher, it is almost impossible to achieve reliability and simplicity of data processing without significant losses of information, for the respondent, it makes to do a hard job to think up a genuine answer. The article is to outline some principles how to classify open-ended questions in order to develop coding algorithms for each class. The article’s concerns are (1) what informs the openness and/or closeness to a questions, (2) whether openness and closeness of question is a dichotomy or a continuum, (3) what general presuppositions for classifying answers to open-ended questions could be.
The article reports the results of the study of a peculiar type of everyday judgments about distributive justice. It examines the ways the social context affects normative judgments about the distribution of costs necessary for the public good maintenance from a third-party point of view. We used the factorial survey approach to estimate the effects of contextual information about the cost recipients’ kinship relations, the specific mode of providing information about their current financial standing, as well as the size of total costs on the perception of distributive justice. The participants generally tended to distribute costs compensating to those in the worst financial situation at the expense of those who were in a better financial situation if the recipients of costs were relatives, the information of cost recipients' financial standing described their incomes rather than debts, and the total costs were relatively low. Alongside with the statistically significant main effects, the pronounced first-order interaction effects between the total costs size and two other experimental factors were revealed: the increase in total costs diminished both the effects of kinship and of the information provision form (incomes vs. debts), thereby pushing participants to perceive an egalitarian division of costs as fair. The results support the general hypothesis about the contextual nature of distributive justice and promote our understanding of its manifestations in the form of ordinary normative judgments concerning the distribution of costs which are necessary for the public good maintenance.
The article is a continuation of the work published in the second issue of the Monitoring of Public Opinion (No 2, 2015) which reconstructs non-protest apolitical ethos of the volunteer participation denying the compliance between the volunteer’s role and the protest activity. The article considers an alternative point of view allowing the co-existence of the volunteering and the protect participation. The purpose of the study is to reconstruct the categorical framework of the volunteering protest ethos using the interviews with volunteers which admit protest participation as part of volunteering. The reconstruction represents five derived dimensions formed by the dichotomically opposed meanings of the protest volunteering. There are two ways to legitimize the protest participation of the volunteers in the protest ethos: either to speak in favor of the «essence of the volunteering», or to speak in favor of the «object of preoccupation»: each argument has its limits and scope of tasks posed for the protest action as well as different meanings of the volunteerism and protest actions.
The study problematizes the role of flexible working hours in the life of self-employed professionals (freelancers). High levels of autonomy to manage time not only bring benefits but may also lead to self-exploitation. The study is based on the data of the online survey “Freelancer Census” (2019) and the RLMS-HSE (2017). The authors argue that compared to the national average freelancers have to work in non-standard working hours (working night, weekend, and holiday) when other workers take a rest. Regression analysis shows that non-standard working hours may lead to poor work-life balance in the life of freelancers. The most vulnerable groups are women, individuals who have spouses (partners) and freelancers having minor children.
The article presents the results of a study aimed at identifying the types of maternal attitude to their child of an early age among imprisoned women in a penitentiary. The study was done in Spring 2017 in a prison in Nizhny Novgorod region. The key method of data collection was a biographical interview that allowed to draw a clear boundary between the effects of the biographical experience of the convicted woman and the influence of the conditions prevailing in the penitentiary system on her maternal attitude toward the child. The article suggests a typology of the mother's attitude to the child: "Involved", "Worrying", "Passive" and "Visiting" type, and also describes factors that contribute to the formation of each of them.
In particular, it was found that the biographical factors (relationships in the parents' family, relations with the partner, criminal experience, etc.) are frequently decreased by the prison environment, as it is a rigid system of restrictions and regulation of all procedures concerning maternity.
On the one hand, these conditions reduce the probability of occurrence of deviant motherhood among the imprisoned women, but at the same time denies space for the development of emotional and psychological contact in the dyad mother-child. This increases the probability of maternal alienation, and contributes to a further refusal to perform maternal functions.
The study also indicated that the lack of a methodological basis for supporting maternity leads to the situation when a woman is unable to care for her child because of a lack of necessary knowledge and skills. The only agent of socialization and education of motherhood in the penitentiary is the micro community of convicted mothers living together who construct and reproduce their own model of "good", socially approved motherhood.
The theoretical basis of work is the notion of legitimation as a complex mechanism of social approval of a new phenomenon taking place with the active participation of different social groups and structures, able to influence its final form. In the focus of the empirical analysis the representations of social entrepreneurship that main actors of its legitimacy in Russia have. Among them are: the state, foundations, NPOs and business. We assess the (in)consistency between their representations as well as the reflection of these representations in the characteristics of existing organizations of social entrepreneurship (social enterprises).
Business, government and NPOs are understood as external actors of social enterprise legitimation, as without their recognition the legitimation will not take place. In turn, social enterprises, regardless of whether they come from for-profit or non-profit sector, are seen as objects of legitimation, or as a new actor, not identical to any of the above. It is shown that the contradictions in the positions of key actors can lead to mutually exclusive projects of legitimation of a new phenomenon, so that they will undermine the cognitive and moral legitimacy of each other. The empirical data include the results of the authors survey of 202 social enterprises.
Mobile internet provides conditions for the split presence of participants interacting in augmented reality. This is especially true for participants of location-based mobile games that move through the streets of the city and are among other passers-by. Split presence means that presence in the physical environment and presence in the virtual environment can be in varying degrees of coherence. For the game process, it is important to constantly relate who is near and what happens on the screen of the mobile device that actualizes the problem of compliance of accepted rules of propriety. To conceptualize what is considered "proprieties" in situations involving gadgets, we turn to the theoretical resources of Erving Goffman. According to E. Goffman, proprieties mean maintaining the presence among the other participants of a situation that includes two elements: location and involvement in what is happening. The maintenance of proprieties is revealed in the desire of all participants to find a balance between these two elements. However, the possibility of (in)consistency between these two elements rises in location-based mobile games, because of which several protective mechanisms of attention distribution among participants in interaction are involved: 1) constant monitoring of the surrounding, 2) appropriate (not) ignoring passers-by, 3) total exclusion from the interaction of cheaters who substitute their location in the game. Together the three mechanisms ensure the “smoothness” of the game and the resulting public interactions, the boundaries of which now include rules of conduct in both offline- and online-environments. The methodology of the empirical research is based on ten semi-structured interviews with the players of Ingress the Game and Pokémon Go, as well as multiangle shooting of five game episodes. As a result of analysis of the collected video material, we see that users of location-based mobile games do not fall out of interaction with passers-by. They continue monitoring reactions of passers-by to their presence in public places trying to normalize their appearance. In an unhurried game, players spend a lot of effort not to seem completely absorbed by mobile devices. To do this, players switch attention from screens to passers-by, distracting them when they are so close that it allows monitoring of the actions of other participants in the situation. However, the behavior of players is substantially limited by ignoring the reactions of passers-by, which makes the players' position closed to spontaneous interaction. In addition to the fact that players are attentive to the presence of passers-by, they also scrupulously approach dishonest players (cheaters) who substitute the coordinates of their location, which allows them to perform game actions in places where they do not exist. In the case of detection of such cases, "live" players cease to notice the actions of cheaters excluding them from public interaction.
The outflow of young people from small towns of Russia is significant and it is mainly associated with the departure to study in big cities. The paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey of secondary school graduates in 4 Russian small towns which are located at a great distance from regional centers. The interviews with the experts in these cities conducted in 2015 are also presented. The article analyses the reasons and intentions for migration, its scope and direction of the young people outflow, opportunities and obstacles of return migration. It was conducted that the youth migration is not their spontaneous decision, purpose on departure for the study formed long before graduation. Families stand ready to support young people in their migratory intentions to the big cities. Leaving areas selected for study are frequently chosen on the subsequent departure of the whole family. When choosing the direction of migration the prestige of the university and the presence of a chosen speciality is taken into account. But to a greater extent, the prospects to remain for permanent residence in the city where young people sent to study play major role. Return migration in the small towns after graduation is light, and it is mostly associated with the presence of a good job or a bad experience of mortgage in a big city.
Modern corporate culture in the context of Bauman’s liquid modernity is greatly defined by the level of freedom, in particular, flexibility, mobility, new technologies and mass communications. Staying connected 24/7 both in professional and private life known as ‘hyperconnectivity’ becomes commonplace. Hyperconnectivity entails not only positive but also negative consequences regarding the effectiveness of an individual’s work as well as the work of entire organizations. The purpose of the article is to consider the negative aspects of the use of mobile devices as a way to establish work-life balance in the context of modern liquidity. Individual’s ‘right to disconnect’ minimizing the adverse effects of hyperconnectivity is essential to the analysis of the issue. The right to disconnect is a new addition to the list of labor rights allowing an individual to disconnect from the work primarily by switching off email or disabling workrelated messages during nonworking hours. To study the need to introduce ‘the right to disconnect’ and to achieve a better work-life balance the authors examine the labor practices in South Korea and two European countries (Germany and France).
In their version of modernization theory, R. Inglehart and K. Welzel suggest that younger cohorts socialized under conditions of existential security are the main drivers of post-materialist values and modernization process. In this paper, we test this thesis based on five waves of the World Values Survey fielded in Russia and covering the period from 1990 to 2017. We use age-period-cohort analysis, which disentangles the effects of age, time period and cohorts. We implement a method of measuring emancipative values proposed by K. Welzel. His emancipative values consist of four different indices: «autonomy», «equality», «choice», and «voice». The results show that younger cohorts in Russia do have a higher level of emancipative values as suggested by the theory. The basis for the transformation of values is three indices out of four: «autonomy», «choice», and «voice». «Equality» is the only index that showed neither age nor cohort differences.
One way to take control over the effect of social desirability on respondent answers is to introduce social desirability scales into questionnaire. Social desirability scale included into the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and used for the Russian-speaking sample of teachers was not cross-culturally adapted. Besides that, this tool is based on the Marlowe-Crowne Scale where the psychometric characteristics are assessed only according to the Classical Test Theory and have ambiguous results. To fill in the gap in our knowledge of validity of the TALIS scale of social desirability, the authors conducted a psychometric analysis using the Item Response Theory. The results showed good reliability, considerable unidimensionality, though poor scale functioning. Based on the obtained results including simulated data, measures to improve the quality of psychometric characteristics of the scale are proposed by the authors. The key findings concerning the structure of the social desirability construct are made.
The authors explore how students describe and assess the impact of their participation in extracurricular activities. The basis of the study is 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews involving students of two Russian universities participating in the project 5—100 (National Research University and Federal University). Three key groups of positive consequences of extracurricular activity were singled out: gaining skills and competencies, expanding social ties, and professional self-determination. Students view the extra-curricular hours as a way to develop both their practical skills related to their professional activities and flexible skills which they consider to be useful in the job search after the graduation. Besides that, the extracurricular activity for them is a platform for acquiring social capital while interacting with a wider circle of people: other students, lecturers, university employees, and external environment. According to the students, combining their classroom activities with the extracurricular activities helps them make sure that they have made the right choice, gives an opportunity to try professional roles and duties, while still being students, and opens new career perspectives.
The article devoted to a conceptualization of Russian actual gender order. For these means, the author uses
I. Kon’s idea of three revolutions, as a social process of rebuilding the gender relationships in the sexual, familial, educational and occupational spheres. Also, the author introduces an analytical framework to interpret in a new way a specificity of gender relationships (re)production in modern Russia, and identify factors supporting and preventing the change in relations between men and women in the public and private spheres towards greater gender equality, i.e. gender revolution. Using G. Esping-Andersen’s concept of multiple equilibrium and S. Duncan’s concept of institutional bricolage we can analyze the relationship between the Soviet experience of gender policy and modern trends of individualization and pluralization. When we review the sexual, gender and family revolutions in the historical context, we can find out how the (re)invention of tradition proceeds in the modern context, how the modern gender basing on the Soviet experience of gender policy and how strong it is, and how much post-Soviet transformations and global trends contributed to its specificity.
August 1998 caused a considerable decline of the population's standard of living. At the same time, the reaction of Russian society to the crisis and its consequences was considerably mild. The outburst of strikes appeared to be weak and public mood began noticeably improving already since the second half of October. The scale and duration of the improvement of public mood demonstrate the presence of factors softening negative processes in the social sphere and ensuring the Russians' adaptation to the post-crisis conditions that are far from comfortable. The data of VCIOM Monitoring enable to examine in more or less detail the following two factors: a decrease in the level of economic demands and a high level of confidence in Ye. Primakov's government.
The possibility of achieving a work-life balance can be considered as one of the types of life chances related to the quality of life. In the article, the main dimensions of inequality in the possibilities of achieving life balance in general and in different areas that compose it (with special attention devoted to the possibilities of non-production activities), are estimated on the basis of the data of all-Russian representative monitoring carried out by Institute of Sociology FCTAS RAS. It is shown that inequalities in the sphere of life balance do not smooth out other monetary and non-monetary inequalities in life chances (in particular – those in economic sphere), but, on the contrary, deepen them. It is concluded that vertical stratification remains dominant in Russian society, and those dimensions of non-monetary inequality that are associated with way of life and lifestyle, are superimposed on it rather than become the basis of horizontal stratification. Therefore, the possibility of achieving it in Russian society today is a sign of the general well-being in vertical hierarchies of other economic and non-economic life chances. The general context for formation of work-life balance concept is also taken into account - in particular, it is shown that social perceptions of life success remain fairly traditional and are connected mostly with the realization of goals in the social and work sphere that are quite achievable and complementary in the population’s own assessments.