The article is devoted to the newest history and contemporasry condition of the personal aspects of the public administration, i.e. to serious modernization of the theory of bureaucracy and practical measures to improve it. The broad bibliographic analysis of special, mostly, American, literature in this area, including the critical judgements of reforms and condition of the American public service, is made. The comparisons with the condition of the Russian similar system are offered. The general trend is a tendency to the de-bureaucratization of the executive branch of power. search of its more limited functionally pattern under control of the civil society.
The paper is aimed at assessing the regulatory impact of the new trade law (2009). A standardized data survey is used for revealing market sellers that may gain from the introduction of the trade law. 512 filled questionnaires were collected from the managers of chain stores and their suppliers in fi ve big cities of Russia in November-December 2010. Federal Anti-Trust Service statistics is used to examine the scale and dynamic of regulatory impact on the trade law enforcement. The author concludes that the initial effects of the trade law do not correspond to the declared goals. At the same time, the market sellers confront with the additional transaction costs of administrative control, prosecutions and fi nes due to the extended prerogatives of the anti-trust authorities.
Licensing is one of the main administrative tools used for state regulation of the economy. It can serve as a fairly accurate «barometer» of the administrative burden, which the government provides the business with.
This article analyzes the licensing of certain types of economic activities in the context of the whole system of administrative regimes of the economy. The authors conclude that the legal acts regulating the licensing can be a model for the regulation of other administrative regimes.
Special attention is paid to the history of transformation of the licensing system for the past 20 years, including the period of the administrative reform. The paper assesses the effectiveness of the measures taken in the framework of the reform. The authors concluded that, despite some deregulation, in many cases replacing licensing in other administrative regimes has maintained or even increased the amount of administrative pressure.
The authors examined in detail the innovations of the Federal Law of May 4, 2011 N 99- FZ «On Licensing Certain Types of Activities», highlighting its advantages and disadvantages. The main advantages of the law are the reduction of the list of licensed activities, the introduction of perpetual licenses, the use of information technology in the licensing procedures. The main disadvantage of the law is increase in terms of administrative procedures for licensing.
In 2012 the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia has created an information system for collecting data on the licensing of certain types of economic activity. The paper contains an analysis of the statistical data obtained by using this system. It allows us to assess the extent and pattern of functioning of the institution of licensing.
The article also provides an analysis of some current problems of licensing: the restriction of places of the licensed activity; the consolidation of licensed activities; the uncertainty of the forms and methods of verifying compliance with the licensing requirements; the lack of communication between the licensing bodies and the tax authorities. According to the analysis of these problems, the authors formulate proposals to improve the licensing system.
The article tries to assess the role of health statistics of the people in the state-run Health Service in modern Russia. The article analyses the problems connected with collecting statistics and concludes that medical statistics does not reflect the real situation in the Health Service and the health state of the nation. Taking this into account, the author suggests considering statistics as a means in the struggle for the distribution of resources and as a form to prove that the decisions taken on resources distribution are correct.
The paper reviews the problem of Russian regions’ inequality and the current system of intergovernmental fiscal relations, which is used as the main smoothing mechanism of the regional disparities. To use only the minimum level of fiscal capacity as the main calculated indicator of the intergovernmental transfers is not effective, because the real differences between the regions should be considered by taking into account socioeconomic variables (income levels, standard of living). Moreover the problem of a large grant amount to the sub-national government must be solved not only at the federal level. The detection of the reasons revealed that an active regional policy is required. There are also suggestions and recommendations to the federal and regional authorities how to improve the system of intergovernmental fiscal relations in the Russian Federation in the article.
The article is devoted to the organization of interdepartmental information exchange about the provision of public (municipal) services. Th e authors analyze the provision of the Federal Law of July 27, 2010 № 210-FZ "On the organization of public and municipal services" that deals with the issue and problems implementing these provisions. Th e article contains the results of the study of the required interagency cooperation scale. Basing on the analysis, the authors suggest changing the strategy of the organization of interdepartmental information exchange.
The article describes International Public Sector Accounting Standards and prospects of their use in the Russian Federation. It emphasizes the need of information about diff erent parties related to public sector entities activities, the set of their fi nancial statements and major diff erences between IPSAS and IFRS/IAS.
The paper focuses on the evolution of government policies for disabled people in Russia from 1991 onwards and development periodization, based on changes in the pension legislation. Analysis of government policies is essential due to the ratification by the Russian Federation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The paper covers compensation policies (benefits) and integration measures. We focus on three dimensions of regulation and social policy: disability benefits, employment protection and non-cash benefits. Our analysis reveals that the employment rate of disabled people is shaped by institutional factors. Disability policy in Russia is developed in the context of international law. Since the 1990s employment assistance for people with disabilities has advanced from supporting sheltered employment towards encouraging the integration into the open labour market. The choice of government policies was greatly influenced by the economic situation in the country. Weak enforcement of employment quotas and of requirements concerning the creation of specialized working places, as well as a limited use of tax deductions lowers 183 Demianova Anna V. Measures of State Supporting Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Russia the efficiency of employment policies for disabled people. The use of “remaining earning capacity” as the key criterion for the assignment of disability benefits negatively influenced disabled people’s labour supply in the 2000s.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the phenomenon of local self-governing, with a new institutional theory being the basis of the analysis. The article analyses the institutional costs of local authorities in small towns and regions when they perform their functions. These costs are, in most cases, unproductive, which make the work of the municipal governments worse. The author introduces a new term "unproductive institutional costs" and proposes their genetics classification.
A new approach to understanding the classical conceptions of the public finances theory is closely connected with looking for ways out of the present world financial crisis. Scientific ideas of the outstanding German scientists A. Wagner (1835-1917) are of prior importance in this process. The Wagner’s law and his conception of fiscal economy can well become a means of knowing the current finance and economic processes. This article focuses on the nature of fiscal economy and its characteristic features. Wagner’s original view of the tax principles and taxation conditions is a constituent. part of his fiscal economy conception. His discovering not only a fiscal but also a social function of taxation was a breakthrough in this field at his time and remains topical at present. To Wagner fairness levying taxes was of great importance in order to understand the principles of efficient taxation. After analyzing the methods and theoretical foundations of the formulation of the Wagner’s low we were able to discover the causes and essence of the law. This article besides the formulation of the Wagner’s law, deals with the experience of testing its first and second version on various statistics materials of the different countries. Investigating the peculiar ways of reasoning and formulating the Wagner’s law, defining the approaches to test it on the empirical material gives an opportunity for further scientific research of the current problems of the public finances.
The purpose of this study was to determine existing practices of young volunteer recruitment, retention and motivation in Russian noncommercial and government organizations and compare them with the best practices in American organizations. To know this information is essential for government managers and NGO leaders to successfully attract and retain young people as volunteers in their organizations. The theories of “economic man” and “altruistic man” have shaped the methodology and research design of this study. To determine the advances and limitations of youth volunteering, the authors conducted expert interviews with prominent public figures and civil society experts. To collect data on practical youth recruitment, retention and motivation, the authors organized semi-structured interviews with 16 NCO leaders in Moscow.
The data have been analyzed and divided in thematic clusters. The synthesis of information permitted to determine three major types of youth volunteering, identify internal and external motivational factors, and single out Russian traditional motives, methods of recruitment and ways of interaction between managers and young volunteers. Based on data analysis, the authors have developed recommendations on best organizational policy for recruitment, retention, and motivation of young volunteers in Russia. In conclusion, the authors developed practical approaches for volunteer managers in government and NGOs is Russia, which included the combination of traditional methods as well as modern volunteer management techniques.
The study expands existing knowledge on managing young volunteers, provides insights in how to better use traditional Russian collective values and connections among young people o attract and inspire them to be good citizens. Results of this study have practical value for government volunteer coordinators and NGO leaders and volunteer managers.