This paper examines intercultural relations of host population (N = 651) and migrants (N = 378) in Moscow. The study examines the relevance of three hypotheses that can be used to understand intercultural relations: the multicultural hypothesis, integration hypothesis and contact hypothesis. Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM), separately for migrants and those in Moscow, and compared the results with each other. The results showed that perceived security, intercultural contacts, acceptance of multicultural ideology, acculturation attitudes and expectations have a significant impact on immigrants’ and Muscovites’ mutual acculturation and attitudes. The authors concluded that efforts to improve intercultural relations between immigrants and the larger society should be directed at enhancing the larger society’s basic sense of security and to developing programs that improve mutual attitudes, intercultural competence and tolerance among both the members of the larger society and among immigrants.
New notion “socio-psychological capital” is proposed and operationalized. From the author’s point of view, socio-psychological capital is a certain psychological relations that are a basis for social capital forming. I. Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior is used as theoretical bases for entrepreneurial behavior study. It is shown that there is an infl uence of some components of socio-psychological capital (institutional trust, social trust and perceived social capital) on socio-cognitive phenomena underlying the intention to open person’s own business. It is stated that socio-psychological capital does not infl uence directly on intention to open one’s own business.
Social capital is shown to be connected not only with macroeconomic indicators at societal level but with peoples economic behavior (n = 634). Relationships of social capital and attitude to money are considered. Assumption that social capital can fulfi ll the regulative function in peoples attitude to material resources which can manifest itself at individual level in peculiarities of attitude to money is expressed. As far as different forms of capital can convert into each other, persons high social capital must be joined with his lesser money - orientation. Social capital at the individual level has a negative infl uence on intensity of the following monetary attitudes (according to A. Furnham): Retention, Power, Inadequacy, Security.
The article describes the development and validation of a new measure called the Self-Possession Scale. The evidence for the factor structure and psychometric properties of the test is presented in the three series of studies with data from a sample of 678 subjects (325 males and 353 females) aged 16–68 (M = 30.32, SD = 10.86). Cluster, exploratory, and confirmatory factor analysis verified the three-factor solution: 1) personal self-possession (i.e., the ability to maintain moderation and composure in circumstances of everyday life); 2) eventual self-possession (i.e., the ability to maintain fortitude in difficult or unpredictable life situations); 3) existential self-possession (i.e., the ability to achieve harmony between oneself and the outside world in all circumstances). It was shown that the Self-Possession Scale shows good discriminatory power, internal reliability and test-retest reliability, and demonstrates the predicted correlations with total scores on questionnaire “Style of Behavior Self-Regulation” by V.I. Morosanova, Self-Determination Scale by K. Sheldon and E. Deci, Self-Monitoring Scale by M. Snyder, Self-Control Scale by J. Tangney, R. Baumeister and A. Boone, Self-Control Subscale from the questionnaire of volitional self-control by A.G. Zverkov and E.V. Eydman. We described the procedure of introducing the filler items for the correction of the social desirability, previously measured Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding by D. Paulhus. The results provide support for the Self-Possession Scale as a valid and reliable scale for measuring selfpossession, which can be used in scientific and practical purposes, including the situations with high social desirability (e.g., when applying for a job, in the competitive selection, etc.).
Such crucial aspects of philosophical and psychological conception of scientific work of prominent domestic philosopher and psychologist Sergey Leonidovich Rubinstein as problems of Man and Personality, ontological basis of their essence and means of existence and self-realization are analyzed. Created by the scientists school consecutively developed his sophisticated and profound ideas, integrating separately elaborated aspects (abilities, needs, motivation, consciousness, self-consciousness, thinking as personality problems), widening the context of their researches. Rubinstein's approach due to his disciples and followers, due to the constructivism of his ideas itself holds a leading position in Russian psychology.
Socio-psychological conditions for origin of victimity and victim behavior of girls – victims of sex slavery have been studied. The study was conducted in the Moscow rehabilitation center of International Organization for Migration for the victims of traffi cking. 78 females – victims of sex slavery aging 15–35 constitute the main group in the study; the control group consists of 100 female students of the university aging 18–25 years. Signifi cant differences in the level of socialization, personality characteristics, and conditions of socialization were revealed between groups. Six groups of key socio-psychological features characterizing cognitive, emotional and volitional, personality factors of victimization, rehabilitation potential, traumatic experience, typical for female victims of sex slavery were identifi ed by means of factor analysis. It was proved that victimity as a socio-psychological mechanism of social behavior regulation correlates with girls’ diffi cult life situation, as well as with social immaturity, which is a consequence of unfavorable conditions of socialization.
Historism of scientific conception of S.L. Rubinstein which is the premise for the universality and fundamentality of scientist's ideas is grounded. Rubinstein's contribution to domestic history of psychology formation, to its principles, means of positive analysis and constructive critique of psychological approaches as well as its philosophic -methodological grounds forming is revealed. Based on Rubinstein's ontological approach the understanding of object and subject of history of psychology is given
The article presents the development of the new self-report questionnaire EmoS-15 measuring core affect. Core affect is defined as the key component of any emotional phenomenon, elementary consciously accessible affective feeling not directed at anything. The EmoS-15 is based on the structure model of core affect derived from the Russian data. The model distinguishes three dimensions of core affect, namely positive affect with high activation, negative affect with low activation, and tension. The EmoS-15 consists of three respectively named scales. The questionnaire comprises 15 items each of them being an emotion name. The participant must assess to which extent each item matches her emotional state using Likert format of responses. The EmoS-15 was administered to 303 participants. All scales have satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alphas higher than .85); the questionnaire factor structure fits the three-dimensional model. To assess validity, EmoS-15 scales were correlated with personality questionnaires that measure similar psychological constructs (N=83). The first scale yielded the highest correlation (r = .50) with the aggregated score consisting of Diener’s Satisfaction With Life Scale and Lyubomirsky’s Subjective Happiness Scale. The second scale yielded the highest correlation with the Beck Depression Inventory (r = .63) and the third scale with the state scale of Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .57). This pattern of correlations confirms satisfactory validity of the EmoS-15. The new questionnaire can be applied to a wide array of research and practical tasks including measurement of the actual core affect and emotional state, assessment of the affective background typical for longer time periods, experience sampling, and control of participants’ emotional states during the laboratory experiments.
The article presents the development of the database ENRuN that contains normative emotional ratings of Russian nouns. For 387 nouns, their relatedness to five emotional categories – happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust – was rated. High reliability of the collected data has been shown; sex differences and interrelations among categories have been analyzed. For each word by each emotional category, the database provides a mean score, standard deviation, minimum and maximum scores, as well as word length in letters and syllables and word frequency. The database ENRuN can be used in the studies of emotional stimulus processing, for emotion induction in the laboratory setting, analysis of text emotional tone, and in other domains of the experimental psychology of emotion. The database is accessible free online (DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33177.62566).
Current models of category learning di er unidimensional and complex category rules. Numerous studies using various types of interference task showed that unidimensional rule-based category learning can be disrupted by verbal interference, and complex rule-based category learning can be disrupted by nonverbal interference. However, in these studies, interference accompanied all stages of learning, which prevent to detect its in uence on the di erent components of the learning process. In two experiments participants were to categorize arti cially created stimuli according unidimensional or complex rules. The interference tasks were presented at the beginning or in the middle of the learning course. It was found that the complex- based rules learning slowed down during interference and continued at the previous rate after interference termination. The unidimensional rule-based learning also slowed down at the time of interference but after it stopped this type of learning continued at a higher rate. These results are discussed in relation to the COVIS model.
Distractor's effect (stimulus which is irrelevant at a certain moment and ignored) on task solving efficiency is considered. It is revealed that according to problem situation and connection with target stimulus any distractor can produce two opposite effects: negative - interference and positive - redundancy effect. Distractor effects' classification based on one of possible grounds - distractor's source: sensory inputs effects, hierarchical effects and correlational effects is given. Possibility of level-hierarchical relation between the three classes of effects is discussed.