The paper analyzes the results of the systems project Training Workers to Comply with the Requirements of High-Tech Industries Using Dual Education, organized by the Agency for Strategic Initiatives in 13 subjects of the Russian Federation. Dual education implies “dual” institutional consolidation of knowledge obtained in vocational education programs: theory is normally learned at a vocational school, while an apprenticeship is taken within a company, in a real-life working environment. It is shown that the best practices of dual education can be found in the growing sectors. The most successful implementation of the dual model is observed in the regions of Russia that have seen their investment climates improved, their barriers for businesses reduced, and the quality of their public administration increased. Effectiveness of the dual model is largely contingent on the economic motivations of employers investing in a staff training system within the framework of large-scale investment and technology upgrade projects. As employers’ associations are weak, the decisive role in the coordination of efforts between businesses and professional educational institutions is played by regional authorities and governor’s councils, which have virtually grown into substitutes for German chambers of industry and commerce. Nationwide vocational education projects have promoted further development of the dual model due to organizational and financial support from study and career clusters. The best dual education practices should only be spread to regional industries that have the necessary economic and infrastructure premises for companies to invest in such a staff training system.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.
A number of studies have emphasized the importance of the educational potential of cities and revealed that home district characteristics influence children’s educational identity and access to educational resources. However, little attention is paid to the conditions and limits of children’s access to the city environment as well as the geographies of their outdoor activities, i. e. how far from home they travel when hanging out, how this distance can change as a child grows up, how often children attend specific places, and how the geographies of their mobility depend on their personal characteristics. A survey of Moscow school students of grades 5–10 is used to explore the basic characteristics of children’s independent mobility, including their everyday mobility, i. e. frequented places and the distance to them. It is shown that children normally travel within a radius of 1 km from home; the central part of the city and the neighboring districts are visited less often than places within the home district. A comparison of everyday mobility of high- and low-performing students has proved that the proportion of children whose most frequented place is centers for after-school education is higher among high-performers. Yet, no correlation was found between the size of the “habitat” and academic performance. Moreover, places for leisure, including leisure education, of families have been described based on a survey of over 700 mothers of school students. Families with high levels of cultural capital and good financial standing have demonstrated greater diversity of shared leisure activities and comprise a higher proportion of those attending family courses, public lectures, or other urban events. Such families exploit the educational leisure opportunities provided by the city more actively than others.
L. L. Lyubimov Notes on myth creation around great Russian literature According to the author, the classical Russian literature remains completely unread by a majority of population in this country. The reason for that is that it is well «hidden» behind revolutionary mantras and оценками. The author explores the revolutionary liberal literary criticism as a phenomenon that initiated the myth creation around the Russian literature: the religious content of many a masterpiece of the Russian literature was ostracized, the notion of a «small person» was perverted, and general humanistic values were replaced by revolutionary slogans. Particular attention is given to an analysis of the world outlook and personality of V. G. Belinsky.
Data obtained in interviews with doctoral students and their academic supervisors as well as in doctoral student surveys conducted across six Russian universities is used to explore the motives for embarking on and pursuing a PhD, and evaluate their incidence. Drawing from Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory, three basic types of motivation are identified — intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation — and described in the context of doctoral education. Even though academic labor has been losing its prestige in Russia, intrinsic motivation associated with interest for research, science and education remains the most popular motive for embarking on doctoral study. At the same time, a significant percentage of doctoral students are driven by external non-academic motives, such as specific social benefits or desire to use PhD as an asset in a non-academic career.
Measuring mathematical literacy is not easy as this construct is multicomponent and tasks often involve a lot of reading. As a rule, intended users of measurement results want information about the overall level of respondents’ mathematical literacy as well as its specific components. According to educational and psychological testing standards, reporting overall scores together with subscores simultaneously requires additional psychometric evaluation to provide evidence for the validity of all scores reported. A study performed shows that PROGRESS-ML, a test measuring basic mathematical literacy in elementary school pupils, can be used as a one-dimensional measure, allowing overall test scores to be reported. Meanwhile, reading skills do not contribute significantly to the likelihood of item response, and subscores can be reported as complementary to the total score.
The article presents a tool for assessing the parental regulation of children’s behavior at the start of the school. The questionnaire assesses the implementation by parents of two typical control functions (direct control of the child’s behavior and communicative mediation between the child and the environment), as well as a poorly studied construct—parental control over digital devices (“gadgets”) that the child uses. It was demonstrated that the severity of parental control is sensitive to the characteristics of parents (higher education, age, number of children in the family) and the characteristics of the child (cognitive achievements at the start of the school).
This paper is a review of papers studying the factors that determine starting salaries of university graduates. The focus is laid upon the works addressing the question: To what extent can starting salaries for graduates be indicative of the quality of education received? We discuss the theoretical conceptions shedding light on the reasons for differences in salaries of fresh graduates: the theory of human capital, the signaling theory of education, the theory of equalizing differences, and empirical studies aimed at measuring the influence various factors have on the size of starting salaries. An analysis of the oeuvres has shown that, despite the important role played by the quality of education, there are many other factors that can have an impact on the salary size. Such factors include diversity of graduates, diversity of jobs, market imperfections, individual preferences of graduates and their strategies of entering the labor market. The provided review and critical analysis of foreign studies designed to assess the correlations between the quality of higher education and the level of starting salaries for graduates allows us to define the general requirements to data quality in case Russia adopts the system of university graduate monitoring.
Individual psychological predictors in longitudinal studies of professional and educational careers The article presents first results of the Monitoring of educational and labor trajectories of high school and university graduates. This project has been launched by HSE in 2009. The research group has conducted surveys among university students in their last year studies in two regions of Russia. The purpose has been to determine individual indicators that would best predict changes in the educational and professional trajectory. There have been determined groups of students for whom the probability to change career after the graduation is particularly high. The article discusses the significance of the chosen independent variables as concerns the two main reasons for a trajectory change: lack of certainty in the professional career in the last year of studies and low academic achievements of students. The future possibilities of the launched study are discussed.
This article investigates into the reform of national school curriculum in Russian-language schools in Latvia and Estonia. We assess how well the reform-related regulations have been integrated into everyday schooling practices and reflected in educational outcomes in order to measure the success of the education reform in terms of adopting the new learning standard and improving the PISA results. The study exploits the situation of natural experiment that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union, with countries that used to have a common education system taking different reform paths and achieving different outcomes. National school curriculum is analyzed at three levels: as intended (stipulated in documents), as implemented (taught by school teachers), and as attained (reflected in test results). Such three-level analysis required studying the documents that described the key reform provisions, conducting a series of in-depth interviews in Russian-language schools to investigate the process of integrating the proposed innovations in teaching practices, and analyzing how PISA results in Latvia and Estonia had changed between 2006 and 2015. It is shown that the gap between the curriculum as intended and as attained has reduced in both countries. Schools have been actively integrating the changes proposed, and PISA results have been improving consistently, yet the methods of achieving those results differ between the countries. The natural experiment study design allowed to explore educational reform processes in the two countries as well as to assess the effects of the reforms introduced.