The aim of this study was to analyze the scope and limitations of top-down influences upon visual information processing (during visual search for letters and words in random letter arrays). Previously we have demonstrated that the presence of words in large letter arrays does not affect the efficiency of visual search for a target letter in these arrays. The current study shows that spontaneous word extraction during visual search for target letters and controlled word extraction during visual search for words are mediated by different perceptual strategies. Spontaneous word detection is not accompanied by specific eye movements, whereas the words search task produces an increase of the number of eye fixations over all the letter array, both within and between words. In an additional study we demonstrate that categorical set does not affect the efficiency of visual search for words in random letter arrays: it seems that observers first extract words from letter arrays and then categorize detected words. Thus, there appears to exist two distinct mechanisms providing for the detection of words in letter arrays. The first mechanism is based on the processing of separate letters, whereas the second one is based on the processing of words as perceptual chunks.
The article presents the author's theory of consciousness. The proposed theory allows describing unexplained yet psychological phenomenology. Ideal (psychic) and material (physical) is viewed as attributes of the substance-process of activity. Human is the subject of not one activity, but of the integral system of activities. Thus, individual consciousness is the attribute of individual system of activities and personal history of activities of the person. The difference between a system and a history of every man causes differences of consciousness (ideal attribute of system of activities) and corporeality (material attribute). Group differences of the systems of activities cause, accordingly, cultural, ethnic, regional, professional and other group differences of attributes of activity (of consciousness and corporeality).
We change reality with our activity, i.e. reality is partly dependent on our activity. Thus, “objective reality, which is independent of our consciousness” and our acts, is non-existent, and taking into account consistency and interconnectedness of the Universe, this redefines the issue of responsibility of the subject of the conscious process. Various states of consciousness of man gather in one integral self-consciousness with the help of his continuous and developing system of activities. New states of consciousness (and new knowledge) are born not from the consciousness itself, but from the development of one’s activity.
Joint activity causes joint consciousness (ideal attribute of joint activity) and joint corporeality (instrumentality material attribute). Inclusion of various subjects in common activity causes transpersonality (in its limit – noospherity) of consciousness. The unexplained yet by science, but stated parapsychological phenomenology is possible to study with the schemes of structures of individual and joint activity as processes and products of these activities, as results of processes of transpersonality and continuity (skandhas) of activities.
The article presents the results of an English adaptation of the brief summary of a “Differential Perfectionism Inventory”. The psychometric testing of the adapted version of the measure called Brief Differential Perfectionism Inventory (BDPI) was enacted with the participation of 394 Malaysian students of the Foreign Department of I.M. Sechenov First MSMU (175 males, 219 females; M = 22.01, SD = 2.05). The results showed that BDPI is comprised of two scales similar to the original scale: 1) The Normal Perfectionism Scale assesses setting standards that are high but within reach; 2) The Pathological Perfectionism Scale assesses setting standards beyond reach and reason. The BDPI scales demonstrated a satisfactory internal validity (0.76 for the Normal Perfectionism Scale and 0.71 for the Pathological Perfectionism Scale) as well as a test-retest reliability (0.76 and 0.74, respectively). These scales observed anticipated associations with the measures of perfectionism and psychological well-being. Correlational analysis revealed that normal perfectionism correlates positively with flourishing, spiritual meaning, inspiration, gratitude, personal growth initiative, etc., while pathological perfectionism is associated with wisdom, search for meaning and existence. Overall, the study supported the BDPI as a psychometrically strong measure for express-diagnostics of perfectionism in an English-speaking population.
The paper presents a new Russian-language instrument measuring existential fulfillment within the theory of 4 existential fundamental motivations developed by A. Längle. Based on phenomenological descriptions of the constructs and expert discussions, we developed an original Russian-language set of 94 items, which was validated in 2 online samples (N=818 and N=215). Using hierarchical cluster analysis and confirmatory factor analysis with cross-validation in an independent sample, we arrived at a set of 36 items grouped into 4 scales and 12 subscales (corresponding to theoretical prerequisites of fundamental motivations). The scales demonstrate acceptable reliability (α in the .79-.88 range, .93 for the general score). We sought evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the scales by using correlational and multiple regression analyses of their associations with indicators of emotional, social, and psychological well-being, subjective happiness, satisfaction with life, basic psychological need satisfaction, self-esteem, internal locus of control, as well as alienation and psychopathology. The findings support the convergent validity of existential fulfillment indicators against well-being measures based on different theoretical approaches, as well as discriminant validity of specific existential fundamental motivation scales. The new instrument opens up new possibilities for empirical research in the field of existential psychology and, in a broader context, the psychology of self-actualization, well-being, and life satisfaction. The questionnaire can also be used in assessment, counseling, and psychotherapy.
The paper describes the results of examining the relationship between attitudes towards statistics and academic motivation and persistence in sociology students. Often, in the everyday understanding social sciences are identified with the humanities and therefore are considered as not requiring specific mathematical training. Such attitudes in the social sciences students can lead to a decrease in the learning effectiveness and academic issues up to expulsion. To measure the attitudes towards statistics we used SATS-34 that covers a wide range of attitudes to both the academic subject and the statistics in general. The results showed that based on the combination of various aspects of the attitude the students can be divided into three types: interested in mastering statistics, formally interested and uninterested in the subject. The groups differ in the level of perseverance and the prevailing academic motivation. In addition, significant differences between groups were found in the expected and actual grades in the course. The article concludes that the attitudes towards statistics are related to both psychological characteristics of students and to the level of course mastery. The differences between the groups were significant notwithstanding the hard and regular monitoring and the high importance of the course in the curriculum, i.e. the hardness of control does not negate the contribution of psychological factors in the learning effectiveness. We assume that the differences between the groups would have been even more pronounced in a more relaxed learning environment.
An original instrument, Multidmensional Inventory of Loneliness Experience (MILE) is presented. The inventory is based on the authors’ theoretical model of personal attitude towards loneliness. According to this model, acceptance of loneliness as an existential given opens a possibility to appreciate situations of solitude and to use their resources in a productive way that leads to deeper self-awareness and personal growth. Conversely, non-acceptance or fear of loneliness leads to avoidance of solitude by continuous search for social contacts which turns into avoidance of self-encounter and becomes an obstacle for personal growth. MILE contains 40 statements (a shorter version of 24 statements is also presented) grouped into 3 scales measuring the intensity of experienced loneliness and two attitudes towards loneliness, namely, positive solitude and dependence on communication. Three online samples were used, with over 2,500 respondents overall. The structural validity of the instrument was demonstrated using structural equation modeling, and the resulting scales were reliable (α in the .81-.90 range). Convergent and discriminant validity was supported by predictable associations with measures of subjective well-being, life meaning, extraversion, affiliation motivation, and alienation. Using person-oriented approach methodology and cluster analysis, 4 distinct patterns of perceived loneliness were described.
In the current paper, the interrelation between the friendliness of the home environment and family attitudes is investigated. The friendliness of the home environment includes three parameters: the number of functions provided by home (functionality), the congruence of these functions with inhabitants’ needs (relevance), and the home attachment. We assumed that friendly home environment contributes positively to the inhabitants’ family attitudes, and positive family attitudes, in turn, predict a perceived friendly home image.
The sample consisted of 393 participants (295 females and 98 males), students of different faculties of the Higher School of Economics. We used the Functionality of the Home Environment Questionnaire, the Relevance of the Home Environment Questionnaire (short version), the Home Attachment Questionnaire, and the Attitudinal Familism Scale.
The results of the regression analysis show that family attitudes are significantly related to such parameters as Home Attachment, Pragmatism, Protection, Plasticity, Self-Presentation, Ergonomics, and Development of the home environment. And, vice versa, almost all the parameters of the functionality and relevance of the home environment are significantly impacted by family attitudes. Home Attachment is significantly mutually related to attitudes towards family.
The study’s results can be helpful in design of the home environment, in forming individual profiles of the home environment preferences, and for intensification resource function of home as a factor of family atmosphere’ improvement.
The purpose of the research is to study the relationship between three levels of identity (group, micro-group and interpersonal) containing three components in each (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) with the contribution of workers to the activities of work groups. The sample included 302 employees from 35 small work groups in organizations with different profiles of activity. “The Interpersonal Identity Questionnaire”, “The Microgroup and Group Identity Questionnaire”, and “The Contribution to Activity Subscale from the Leadership, Contribution, and Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire” were used to collect empirical data. These tools are included in the computer technology “Group Profile — Universal” applied to examine the participants. Regression analysis was used to study the obtained data. It was found that the predictor of member contribution to group activities is the group identity in three components, as well as the interpersonal and microgroup identities in the affective component. The group identity is a stronger predictor (by the number of components of identity and the importance of communication). Among the three components, the affective component was the most represented in the identified relationships. We suppose that the connection of the three identity levels with the contribution of the workers can create a mutual compensatory effect. In other words, the weakening of one level of identity (in one or several components) can be compensated by the presence, or even strengthening, of another level of identity, thereby maintaining the organizational behavior at a high level. The perspective of the study is outlined so as to find the intermediate variables in the relationship between the levels and components of employees’ identity and their contribution to the group.