The projects of ITER and DEMO reactors showed that there are serious difficulties with solving the issues of plasma facing elements (PFE) based on the solid materials. Problems of PFE can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) – new material, in which liquid lithium fills a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, LTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II is a good basis for development of the project of steady-state operating lithium divertor module for Kazakhstan tokamak. At present the lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is development and manufacturing. The paper describes main design features of the module of lithium divertor (MLD). The first step of the hydraulic tests of MLD with fully assembled external thermo-stabilization system, which was connected to in-vessel lithium unit, were performed using ethanol as a model heat transfer media. Test results of MLD have shown that operating parameters of designed and manufactured system for thermo-stabilization are sufficient for proper operation; basic hydraulic characteristics of the system are close to expected values.
The prospects for the development of the electric power industry of Russia adopted at a regular stage of working out the Energy Strategy and the General Plan of Distribution of the Electric Power Facilities are discussed. The monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the Energy Strategies for the periods until 2020 and 2030 adopted in 2003 and 2009 has, in general, validated the correctness of the estimated volumes of the energy resource production under overestimation of the expected domestic demand owing to an excessively optimistic forecast of the real development of the economy. The priority lines of the national energy policy in electric power and allied industries proposed in the Energy Strategy for the period until 2035 are considered. The tools for implementation of most of the proposals and the effectiveness of their implementation have yet to be defined more concretely. The development of the energy sector and the electric power industry under the conservative and optimistic scenarios of the development of the country’s economy has been predicted using the SCANER modeling and information system, viz., the dynamics of the domestic consumption, export, and production of the primary energy and the electric power has been determined and the commissioning and structure of the required generating capacities and the consumption of the basic types of the energy resources by the electric power industry and the centralized heat supply systems has been optimized. Changes in the economic efficiency of the nuclear and thermal power plants under the expected improvements on their cost and performance characteristics and an increase in the domestic fuel prices are presented. The competitiveness of the wind and solar power production under Russian conditions has been evaluated considering the necessity of reservation and partial duplication of their capacities when operated in the power supply systems. When optimizing the electric power industry as a subsystem of the country’s energy sector, the required amounts of capital investments in the industry have been assessed. Based on the obtained data and the predicted prices of fuel in the main pricing zones of Russia, the ranges of changes in the prices of the electric power in agreement with the macroeconomic restrictions on their dynamics have been calculated.
The paper considers approaches to analyzing and setting directions in the development of Siberia. The view of Siberia widely adopted by the scientific community, taking it to be a socially and economically linked region, is shown to be largely premature. For 60 years, the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences has been developing and elaborating approaches that can provide a comprehensive rationale for the development of Siberia in line with modern spatial economics concepts (creating and distributing value in the interests of Siberia and its individual regions). The approaches developed at the institute make it possible to analyze the synergistic effects from the integrating efforts of individual territories within the Siberian macroregion.
Superplastic deformation behaviour of two aluminium-based AA7XXX type alloys with Sc and Zr additives distinguished by the presence and absence of coarse eutectic Al9FeNi particles are compared. An alloy with Al9FeNi particles exhibits high strain rate superplasticity at constant strain rate range of 5!10"3–8!10"2 s"1 with elongation of 915% due to extensive dynamic recrystallisation. Effective activation energy of superplastic deformation, surface relief of deformed samples, and grain structure evolution are analysed. Particle-depleted zones are found in the alloy with Al9FeNi particles at strains higher than 1.25.
Superplastic deformation behaviour of conventional sheets of a near-α titanium alloy (Ti-2.5Al-1.8Mn) was studied by a step-by-step decrease of the strain rate and constant strain rate tests in a temperature range of 790–915 °C. The research found that superplastic deformation is possible in a temperature range of 815–890 °С and a constant strain rate range of 2 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−3 s−1 with elongation above 300% and m-index above 0.4. Also, the research identified the optimum superplastic temperature range of 815–850 °C and constant strain rate of 4 × 10−4 s−1 which provide a maximum elongation of 600–650%. Strain hardening is accelerated by dynamic grain growth at high temperatures of 865 and 890 °С. High dislocation activity is observed at super- plastic flow in α-phase. Constitutive modelling of superplastic deformation behaviour is performed, and possible deformation mechanisms are discussed. It is suggested that grain boundary sliding between the α-grains is accommodated by a dislocation slip/creep mechanism.
This paper examines recent literature on achieving sustainable cities that incorporate a combined mitigation–adaptation approach towards improved urban resilience as a way of future-proofing. A multidisciplinary approach, which integrates scientific as well as ecopolitical frameworks, is found to benefit this sustainability discourse.
Nowadays, one of the most imminent problems facing power systems in post-industrial countries is the sustainable development of power systems under conditions of increasing power consumption irregularity due to the reduction of the industry’s share in consumers’ demand for electric power. In today’s Russia, this issue is becoming very acute due to the significant share of electric power and heat co-generation that is demonstrating low manoeuvrability and poor adaptation to operations in the daily variation of electric power demand. This paper considers the problem of improving the power system steady-state through the optimization of the production structure of thermal power plants. We propose a combinatorial algorithm that improves the planning of the structural and technological modernization of the power equipment configuration, with a glance at the forecast of the increasing irregularity of power consumption.
Purpose – The purpose of the study is to show the technical potentials of a variety of renewable energy sources in Russia, as well as benefits from their deployment including hydrocarbon savings, emission reduction and lower energy cost. Design/methodology/approach – In the paper, Russia is compared with other countries in terms of actual installed capacity and its dynamics, actual and projected share of renewables in the energy mix. The authors offer calculations of the technical potentials (fuel, heat energy, electrical energy, resource saving and environmental) of renewables (solar PV, wind, biomass, geothermal, low-grade heat, small hydro), identify social and economic preconditions and key effects of their deployment. Findings – The paper features calculations on the renewable energy technology potential, based on the data by Andreenko et al. (2015), authors’ calculations and statistical data. This study proves that the cumulative technical potential of the renewables in Russia amounts to 133,935 million units of oil equivalent. This study also offers assessments of oil fuel, black coal and natural gas savings that may be achieved by replacing fossil fuels with renewables; assessments of avoided air pollution calculated as CO- and CO2-equivalents. Originality/value – The paper fills in the gap of comprehensive assessments of renewable energy potentials in Russia and a variety of effects that their deployment may entail, based on a single integral methodology. The authors offer a new evaluation of existing and future renewable energy potentials, overcoming the methodological and data constraints faced by previous similar studies. The up-to-date, comprehensive and accurate data will help make the right investment and policy choices.
A combined method for synthesizing a highly dispersed (0.8–2.5 μm) hydrophobic Na2O– Bi2O3–SiO2 powder (NBS powder) based on solutions of sodium methyl siliconate and bismuth nitrate is studied. The powder is synthesized at a reduced temperature (100°C). The microstructure and the phase composition of the resulting compounds in the Na2O–Bi2O3–SiO2 system at different processing temperatures are investigated. The structural phase transformations in the mineral phases of NBS powder are revealed in the temperature range of 100–500°C. The metastable bismuth silicate Bi2SiO5 at 400°C is transformed into stable sillenite with composition Bi12SiO20 having a cubic crystal structure (a = 10.1050 Å). The synthesized NBS powder can be used as a filler to fabricate highly effective constructional radiation-shielding polymer composites with tailored properties.
The current paper is devoted to the estimation the effectiveness of the application of the geothermal heat pump application in the climatic conditions of Western Ural. The system approach for assessing the efficiency of the heating system of the research unit (model of a residential house) on the basis of the heat pump is proposed. This approach involves multi-criteria analysis of the facility operation based on the data of field experiments and simulation results, as well as evaluating the economic efficiency of the heat pump as compared with traditional heat sources.
The development of power supplies for ionizing radiation detectors is a complex and difficult problem, especially if this concerns with autonomous mobile measuring systems. In this article, we describe the experience of the implementation of the autonomous solar energy supply for semiconductor ionizing radiation detectors.
The paper focuses on economic aspects of the Russian thermal generation sector’s renovation in a competitive market environment. Capabilities of the existing competitive electricity and capacity pricing mechanisms, created during the wholesale market reform, to ensure the wide-scale modernization of thermal power plants (TPPs) are estimated. Some additional stimulating measures to focus the investment process on the renovation of the thermal generation sector are formulated, and supplementing and supporting costs are assessed. Finally, the systemic effect of decelerating wholesale electricity prices caused by efficiency improvements at thermal power plants is analyzed depending on the scales of renovation and fuel prices.
This paper presents the research of the flow characteristics of the Ti-6V-4Al alloy in wide ranges of temperature (725 ‑ 950 °C) and strain rate (10-5 ‑ 10-2 s-1). The material processing maps were constructed based on the basis of dynamic materials model (DMM) developed by Prassad and modified by Narayana Murty. For the construction of such maps the data of the material’s flow stress at different temperatures and strain rates is necessary. To obtain such data the stepped tensile tests which allow get the stress - strain rate dependence at a given temperature are ideal. The experiments conducted consist of the tensile-testing of samples’ series at various temperatures with stepped change of the deformation speed. By the results of these tests the constitutive equations, which describe relationship between stress and strain rate for each temperature were obtained. The data was analyzed in terms of the two different approaches proposed by Prassad and Narayana Murty to assess the impact of deformation conditions on the formability and flow stability of the material. Based on these approaches, the processing maps which allow identifying the conditions of the Ti-6V-4Al alloy superplasticity were constructed.
The article describes testing of dispatching module of developing telemetry system of well borehole trajectory monitoring for well drilling with use of rotary steerable system. A scheme of reliability evaluation and a stand for load testing of program apparatus complex of surface equipment are discussed. A scheme includes communication controller, input module, and operator’s station and power supplies. These functional units, connected in series, create dispatching system with performance parameters that may be evaluated by continuous formation, sending, processing and saving of recorded data on well state. A well is modeled on regimes close to real production on a drill site. Load testing on stand consist of formation and sending of data array from communication controller to an operator’s station. An array carries time label with date and time, coordinates in metrical notation system and attributes – data about odometry, azimuthal angles and temperature. Modeling signals on well trajectory and additional attribute parameter, arrived to dispatching module, provide automated test regime of program apparatus complex of surface equipment of dispatching module and allow revealing elements that decrease general reliability of entire system of telemetry monitoring on development stage. During continuous load testing failures of program code of operator’s station are found. Border conditions when a system maintains reliable state during long time and parameters of information transmission rate are determined. Based on scheme of series connection reliability of dispatching system main parameters of reliability are calculated.
This study focuses on spatial motion of the lunar elevator which is studied in the framework of elliptical restricted three-body problem. Analysis of dynamics of a spacecraft anchored to the Moon by a tether is done assuming that the tether’s length can be changed according to a prescribed law. The goal is to find the control laws that allow one to compensate for the eccentricity of the orbits, i.e., to maintain the pendulum at a fixed angle with respect to the Earth–Moon direction. The results have shown that the fixed orientation of the tether can be kept for several configurations of the system; some of these configurations are found to be stable. The obtained results can be applied to study the properties and possible configurations of the lunar elevator, as well as applications for small planets and asteroids.
The SHiP experiment is designed to search for very weakly interacting particles beyond the Standard Model which are produced in a 400 GeV/c proton beam dump at the CERN SPS. An essential task for the experiment is to keep the Standard Model background level to less than 0.1 event after 2× 1020 protons on target. In the beam dump, around 1011 muons will be produced per second. The muon rate in the spectrometer has to be reduced by at least four orders of magnitude to avoid muon-induced combinatorial background. A novel active muon shield is used to magnetically deflect the muons out of the acceptance of the spectrometer. This paper describes the basic principle of such a shield, its optimization and its performance.
The Lagrange equations are considered in the case when the Lagrangen function is independent of some of the velocities, and the properties of the differential-algebraic equations arising are studied. It is proved that, when non-degeneracy conditions are satisfied, the equations arising reduce to differential Lagrange equations of lower dimension. The problem of the planar oscillations of an elastic pendulum is considered as an example.
Daily operation of a large-scale experiment is a challenging task, particularly from perspectives of routine monitoring of quality for data being taken. We describe an approach that uses Machine Learning for the automated system to monitor data quality, which is based on partial use of data qualified manually by detector experts. The system automatically classifies marginal cases: both of good an bad data, and use human expert decision to classify remaining "grey area" cases. This study uses collision data collected by the CMS experiment at LHC in 2010. We demonstrate that proposed workflow is able to automatically process at least 20% of samples without noticeable degradation of the result.
We consider the problem of in-plane rotations of a space elevator with variable tether length attached to a surface of one of the primaries in a double system. The planet and its moon (or two asteroids) move about their center of mass in unperturbed elliptic Keplerian orbits. We discuss the possibilities to cause a prescribed motion of the system by changing the tether׳s length. Periodic solutions of the equation for the tether length control are studied using the method of small parameter. The stability of these solutions is studied numerically. The analysis shows that there exists a control law that implements tether rotations which are uniform with respect to true anomaly; one can indicate conditions when the above rotations are stable in the first approximation. These results can be used for the development of a planet elevator or a system for payload transportation to and from asteroid surface.
Lack of reliable data often prevents new private investments in renewable energy and government programs in this sphere. The paper offers a novel renewable energy resources system of potentials: energy, resource saving and environmental; better designed and more accurate methods for calculating the future exploitable technical potentials of wind and solar PV energy for a wide range of generating equipment in centralized and distributed power systems, taking into account existing social and environmental limitations. The paper also presents the latest assessments of these potentials for Russia and its 85 regions (in terms of fossil fuel saving and substitution, power and heat production and environmental effects), offering solutions to overcome methodological limitations of previous county-level assessments, such as incomplete or unreliable sources, absence of hourly, daily and monthly assessments, etc. Given the limitations of existing network of national meteorological stations and satellite monitoring systems it was decided to use NASA SSE database as a source of meteorological information. The methodology was validated through a comparative analysis of the data obtained in the course of this study and the data of wind monitoring campaign carried out by a German engineering company in one Russia’s region for 18 months using 80m masts.