The article focuses on an analysis of the possible connection between the second law of thermodynamics and time. The growth of entropy as a physical process - mostly its technical side - has been well studied but in fact there is no philosophical interpretation of this phenomenon according to the current research, in particular, regarding the inflation model, black holes, the holographic principle, the quantum gravity, etc. Article enhances the role of the second law in its precise connection with these promising areas of theoretical physics, which allow us to take a fresh look at law`s significance and corollaries.
In an effort to achieve this task the contexts of history of science, philosophy and modern physical research are involved. The article proposes two ways of handling the low-entropic initial state (in connection with the concept of “time arrow”). The first one is based on the assumption that if there is a selected time reference point when it should have relatively low entropy (because of its distinguishability and uniqueness). Another approach is based on the fact that gravity plays the role of a low-entropy factor which is able to explain the initial state and the observed increase in entropy in the selected direction over time.
In conclusion these ideas` possible significance for the development of the quantum gravity theory is introduced.
The author considers Information Openness of social structures as the problem in the context of the general problems of the social development.
Historism (historicism) in a most general sense is a principle of historical science, which
demands to see the phenomena in their development and connection with concrete circumstances
of the past. In a more narrow sense it is a trend in the European historical thought,
emerging under the influence of German Romanticism and Hegelianism. Specific features of
it were the romantic thesis about uniqueness and singularity of individuals, cultures and
epochs, the opposition of methods of natural and human sciences, view of history as a history
of spirit (Geist). The overcoming of this program in historical science occurred during the first
decades of the XX century, the philosophical critics had to do mostly with its relativism. K.
Popper’s critics of “historicism” had nothing to do with these debates or with German Historismus
itself. Indeterminism of Popper and F.A. Hayek is close to this Historismus; their
direct precursor and mentor L. von Mises himself developed the ideas of German historical
school in “national economy”. In the debates on positivism in sociology, transformed then
into debates on hermeneutics took part Popper’s disciple H. Albert, but he negated the methodological
dualism of “emancipative” hermeneutics of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, without
any reduction of Historismus to economical determinism. Among the opponents of historicism
in political philosophy important were the arguments of L. Strauss. In polemics with A. Kojève
he turns against not only of the Hegelianism or Romanticism; Historismus with its radical
relativism begins with Machiavelli and Hobbes, from the outset of the Modernity.
The Kara monogatari is a collection of 27 stories of various size. All stories are devoted to China. The plots are matched in a number of Chinese sources, including historical works, Tang and Sung novels, and the poems by Bo Juiyi. The time of the creation of Kara Monogatari has long been the subject of discussion, the issue has not been finally resolved even now. According to the version that is considered to be the most convincing today, the author of the work is Fujiwara no Shigenori, and the text dates back to the end of the Heian period (the second half of the 12th century). Kara monogatari is written in literary Japanese and contains allusions not only to Chinese sources, but also to Japanese poetic and prose texts. The story of the tragic love of Emperor Xuanzong and Yang Guifei occupies almost a quarter of the entire text of Kara monogatari. The interpretation of the events and characters is based on Bo Juyi’s poem Song of Everlasting Sorrow. The text of the story includes eight Japanese waka poems, which serve as a means of adaptation of the plot to the canons of Japanese literature. Despite the fact that Kara Monogatari is generally secular, the conclusion of the text is Buddhist, and does not have similarities in any of Chinese sources. It appears due to the fact that Buddhism had greater influence in Japan than in China.
How is metaphysics possible? The answer to this question can be received by means of Kant’s transcendental method. According to Kant, the basis (background) of any metaphysics is metaphysica naturalis, which is conceived as human reason speculation demand to arise and solve questions that are beyond possible experience and exceed the limits of a current ‘physical’ situation. Thereby the man is homo metaphysicus (Aristotle. Kant). Possibility of metaphysica naturalis roots in the human faculty of imagination and is connected with our language, its metaphysics. There are two modus of the academic metaphysics. Possibility of metaphysica generalis is connected with presence in our language (resp. Mind) special metaphysical (ontologic) predicates (categories). Possibility of metaphysica specialis is connected with presence in our language (resp. Mind) wholeness, or encompassing totalities (comp. with the Encompassing of K. Jaspers).
The author following John Urry raises the question on the future in the context of social theory but not of futurology. As capitalism is a viable system, that outlived its competitors in the framework of social theory is studied the future of capitalism. When it is spoken on capitalism as a system of economic and society organization, almost all the authors come to the conclusion, that it won’t be the same in the future. It will either disappear completely or will be transformed radically or in a more projected way. Though, the latter position of minor capitalism transformations does not exclude the global ecological catastrophe. That is why each process of capitalism transformation is complicated by the available problem of ecological crisis. According to the point of view of some authors, the climate crisis itself is undetached from capitalism (at least from carbon and financial ones), and all together they form a new geological era – capitalocene. Even if we do not admit this new and unsettled term, in any case, ecology is a necessary precondition of capitalism radical transformation, in whichever form it transforms. This is almost all social theorists point of agreement. Otherwise, capitalism has no future, and the future of capitalism is the future of ecology.
Author examines one of the most important spiritual issues of growing Russian culture. Peter the Great has returned Russia to Europe as a military and political force. This cultural hero was a military and political builder. Needed was a second cultural hero – Russian builder of spiritual meanings. Incredible effort Karamzin, who gave Russian self-awareness and self-knowledge, which approved the European values in Russia meant that the second was a cultural hero – a creator of spiritual meanings. It can rightly be called a European Russian, paves the way for the development of a great culture.
The article is a historiographical and theoretical overview of the basic concepts of the genesis of ancient Greek philosophy in the Russian and Soviet philosophical literature 19–20th centuries. The author recalls that the first information about the ancient world appeared in Russia in the 10th century, and indicates the scientific study of ancient Greek philosophy in Russia began only in the 19th century. One of the first original research in this area belonged to the O. Novitsky. He put forward the idea of the development of Greek philosophy from mythology and religion. This concept was developed to creatively S. Trubetskoy. He argued that the philosophy of the Greeks is a special phase of their religious ideas.
The class approach has dominated in the Soviet history of philosophy, and it required to consider the philosophy of the ancient Greeks as a direct reflection of the contemporary level of development of the productive forces. Concepts of philosophy genesis conformed with the requirements of the political situation. Thus, the epistemogeneous concept corresponded to the Communist Party course to struggle against religious vestiges in Soviet society and apologetics myth in a bourgeois political thought. According to this concept philosophy arose from science as opposed to religion and the fight against it. And hypothesis of oriental responsible policy of rapprochement with the countries of the Third World and criticism of eurocentrism. This concept is emphasized oriental influences on Greek philosophy.
In the late 1950s – early 1960s, there is a number of original concepts, operating Marxist methodology as a lively and plastic material. One of the greatest historians of philosophy was A.F. Losev, who created a distinctive methodology for the study of the genesis of philosophy. Interesting theory offered J.E. Golosovker, A.N. Chanyshev, F.C. Kessidy and other scientists. Philosophical debates have become more vivid character and the theoretical value.
The author emphasizes that the conflicting approaches to the problem of the origin of ancient Greek philosophy are attempts to answer the questions of profound character. The debate between supporters of autochthonous and Oriental hypotheses about external sources of Greek philosophy is designed to answer the question: “how and where philosophy emerged?” The question “from what is philosophy emerged?” defined the content of the controversy between the adherents mythogeneous and epistemogeneous concepts concerning the spiritual sources of philosophy. And finally, the question of “how and why philosophy emerged?” accompanied by discussions about social, ontological and other conditions of the emergence of philosophy.
The author argues that the last point in this debate is unlikely to be delivered, because to find the solution to the problem of the genesis of philosophy – it is important to solve the question of philosophy: what is philosophy?
The expansion of the methodological field, the variability, and diversity of scientific approaches in the 20-21th centuries leads to the fact that at present an increasing number of humanities scholars, in search of a certain subject constant, turns to archival materials (notes, drafts, epistolary heritage). These sources, as a rule, contain existential narratives that make it possible to clarify the origins of conceptual constructions. In the article, the epistolary narrative is considered as a kind of “sphere of conversation” (the concept of A. Ben), a special type of communication, i.e. as a field for the analysis of the hermeneutical concept of G.G. Shpet and revealing its intellectual and existential sources. It is shown that the fairy tale letter “Little Girl Tsvetolubochka” (as an example of an epistolary narrative), which Shpet wrote for his daughter Marguerite in 1914, and his later discussions about the specifics of different types of understanding, given by him in the report “Art as a kind of knowledge” (1927), meaningfully intersect. The problem of understanding the meaning posed by Shpet in the 7th chapter of the book “Phenomenon and Meaning” (1914) is symbolically transformed (appears in poetic forms of the word) into a narrative (fairy tale). This “flow of meaning” from one external form to another (while maintaining the internal form) is then conceptualized by Shpet in the book “The Internal Form of the Word” (1927). At the same time, the author compares the specific hermeneutic techniques used by Shpet in an epistolary narrative with methodological ideas of F. Schleiermacher and H.-G. Gadamer.
Russian philosophy of the ﬁ rst half of the 20-th century is usually spoken about as being an “aborted ﬂ ight”. The coherent space of thought and communication of Russian philosophers fell apart. Therefore one of the most topical problems of today's philosophy is the restoration of the continuity of it's traditions that were established at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries. An intensive work in this direction began in 1990s. Today this work goes on, particularly as part of the preparation of the series “The philosophy of Russia of the 1st half of the 20th century”. The aim of this round-table conference is to discuss the research directions, that have recently been formed, and that continue the traditions of Russian intellectual culture, and to further aid the formation of the whole culture-historical image of Russian philosophy as a polyphonic phenomenon in the diversity of modern research contexts.
The article actualizes the method of historical-philosophical reconstruction, that was applied during the preparation process for publication of archival materials of the second part of the fundamental Gustav Shpet’s work, named "History as a problem of logic". This publication continues the already formed in the last decades practice of introduction into scientific circulation of Russian philosophers’ philosophical texts, previously either available in a limited or distorted statute, or only available to a limited number of persons, who had direct access to archive materials. The author believes that today we can confidently assert that we are talking about the introduction to the philosophical work of manuscripts as special elements of modern social world, and not just about archival republication as a tribute to the past. Moreover, in this case we face the situation of the reconstruction, that restores and reconstructs the context and contents of the unpublished work. The article demonstrates how the reconstruction and commenting allow to actualize the texts of Russian philosophers of the early XXth, and thus to focus the specifics of the modern Russian philosophical tradition. The author also traces the pathway of the intellectual movements of G. Shpet in the frameworks of the problem of historical knowledge, demonstrating the relevance of his logical and methodological searches.