The study of masters and schools of the “long 12th century” seems to be a common topic for medieval studies. Throughout the 20th century, the history of medieval education has been the subject of research for such famous medievalists as Jacques Le Goff, Richard William Southern, Jacques Verger and many others. However, these were the ideas of the famous medieval masters that usually attracted the attention of researchers. Less successful medieval schools were mostly deprived of the attention of the medievalists, although the mere proof of their existence would allow a little deeper understanding of the 12th century French school world. The current article aims to fill this gap by proposing a methodology for studying medieval schools that takes into account the extent to which sources document their existence. For this purpose, examples of schools of different degrees of fame were analyzed: the popular school is represented by the Anselm of Laon’s one, the school of Odon of Tournai was chosen as a representative of a small pedagogical center, and the case of a little-known school was analyzed on the basis of the one at the church of St. Julia and Victor in Saint Omer. This main section of the current article is preceded by an analysis of the historiographic and source problems. From the point of view of historiography, the lack of reflection on the concept of “school” characteristic even for the specialized studies presents the greatest difficulty. From the source point of view, the difficulty is caused by the lack of special school terminology in the sources which is inevitable for medieval schools that lacked autonomy up to university period. In addition, the study of schools of the 12th century requires taking into account the distinctive feature of them which is personalization. The practical expression of this feature is the source references to specific masters, but not to schools. The main part of the article demonstrates that by taking into account the aforementioned historiographic and source study features, it becomes possible to add to the geographical map of the 12th century France not only the schools of famous masters, but also small pedagogical centers.
The article is devoted to analysis the Russian imperial policy towards currency of two imperial protectorates in the Central Asia — Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva at the beginning of the 20th century. The final aim of this policy was spreading or the Russian ruble circulation in these protectorates. The goal of the research is an evaluation on a base of this example the effectiveness of economical instruments of an advance of a continental empire into the Central Asia, clarifying the problems connected with attitude of local authorities and population to the Russian political, economical and legal values, i.e. level of acculturation of ruling elite and subjects of economic activity in Bukhara and Khiva. The ideas of different authorities of the Russian Empire on “monetary unification” of Russia and its protectorates are also analyzed as well as their contradictions during the process of development and realization of agreements on fixation of tan’ga’s rate of exchange toward the Russian ruble. The analysis is based on legal monuments, another documentary sources and notes of contemporaries
The history of the mankind is closely connected with the universal processes and to a large extent determined by natural laws. History is made up of the process of interchanges of dominance between Countryside (e.g. ancient east societies, early medieval European states), with slow development, and Town (city-states of Antiquity with its protobourgeoisie and electiveness of governmental structures, modern Europe and America), with much more rapid one.
The article presents a historiographic analysis of the approaches of Soviet historians and politicians of the Comintern and post- Comintern era to South Africa's political and social realities of the 1920s-1950s.
Pope Gregory I letters contain a great number of juridical cases, concerning property litigations, controversies between clergy, complaints of priests and against them. But among all Gregory’s Register the letters, addressed to Archbishop Januarius of Cagliari and to Sardinian defensores are — in my opinion — the most fascinating and highly descriptive source. The legal process under Pope Gregory I is analyzed in detail by L. Giordano, and here I pretend to examine the principles of Pope’s jugement. The article is divided in three parts. The first is dedicated to audientia episcipalis, i.e. to judicial authority of Januarius. Gregory had to constantly remind to Januarius of his juridical duties. He appeals to metropolitan to take an active part in lawsuits between clergy and monasteries. At times pope was interfering in Sardinian lawsuits, but only in serious criminal cases. In other cases he preferred to advise the solution to Januarius. Januarius was frequently accused by citizens of Cagliari who were bored by his cupidity and misbehavior. The complaints against metropolitan had been sending to Rome, and Gregory had to judge them. He was a clement judge, like a severe but kind father. Gregory tried to affect in Januarius conscience and gave many biblical and moral examples in his letters. In fact when the pope discussed any complaint against metropolitan he used two arguments — Biblical text and Justinian law. In this way Bible give a juridical authority like laws. If the lawsuits touch the property of Sardinian monasteries, Gregory urged to call the independent arbiters — jurists or pious men. Their judgement had to be impartial, so binding for both two parts, and had to restore the lost agreement. Arbiters were elected by pope’s defensor or by metropolitan. In the upshot the litigation was one of means to restore the agreement between litigant or — broadly speaking — to restore the peace in Church, without what the Church life is can’t be imaginated.