The article attempts to reconstruct concepts and classifications of the public speech and its significance in the everyday life of the Portuguese court society of the 1nd half of the XV c. The main sources of the study are the treatise of Duarte (1391— 1438, the king of Portugal since 1433) “The Loyal Counsellor” (Leal Conselheiro, ca. 1437—1438) and his “Book of advises” (Livro dos Conselhos de el-rei D. Duarte, 1430s). The treatise was largely created under the influence of the moral and political philosophy of Cicero and Seneca, tradition of mirrors for princes (specula principum, especially, Giles of Rome), the works of the Castilian humanist Alonso from Cartagena. But both “The Honest Counselor” and (especially) “The Book of Soviets” were focused on political and everyday practices. These texts included written advices by members of the royal family and clerics, medics, and lawyers. The King Duarte’s specific combination of “theory” and “practice” made it possible to study the ways of interaction between the system of moral standards and everyday life. The concepts formed a “field of coordinates” for aristocratic interpersonal communication. On the other hand, Duarte took moral examples from patterns for everyday life (especially of recent past). The article analyzes terms of these texts that described and formed social interactions at the royal court. The way the role of written and public speech (including councils themselves) was interpreted is related to the key terms of the king Duarte’s moral and political system: the honesty/loyalty (lealdade), the love (amor), the trust (fiúza е confiança). They form the base for the friendly and relative speech. Its main characteristic was the clarity. The lack of clarity was characteristic of communication with the outside world. In such case a common secret (segredo) fastened family ties. Slander (detraçom) is evaluated without use of the “clarity” concept, it seemed to be an instrument directed against the "good fame" as the basis of social status.
The paper deals with transfer of Western technologies into the Soviet forestry concentrating on the area of Karelian Peninsula and Ladoga Karelia in 1953 - 1964. The area was a center in the Nikita Khrushchev`s modernization as there were several large factories which produced pulp and paper. Specialists from the factories were sent to Finland within the Soviet-Finnish cooperation to study Western technologies. In this I examine their activities as well as technologies they brought to the Soviet-Union.
Nikolai Ivanovich Veselovsky (1848—1918), a Russian orientalist and researcher of Central Asia, was without exaggeration an outstanding man: almost with the medieval scope of a polyhistor scientist, he managed to leave his mark in almost all areas of Oriental historical knowledge at that time. As often happens, the works of scientists of such a wide range, then sometimes obscured by the more capital and well-founded writings of followers, but their merits as discoverers should not be forgotten in any case. A brief overview of the Turkic and Persian manuscripts and documents of Nikolay Veselovsky in the Russian State Archive of Litearture and Art in Moscow presents monuments of the Kazakh historical epic of the 19th century, important historical documents of Khiva and Kokand (17th — 19th centuries), letters of Turkestan religious and political figures, as well as excerpts of Persian Medieval works on Geography and Islamic Creed.
This article examines special features of pleasure gardens (amusement parks) in the late imperial Russia and demonstrates them as sociocultural phenomena. The author attempts to broaden the horizon of the urban leisure studies by addressing to the experience of amusement parks and urban history studies gained by the foreign colleagues. Pleasure gardens appeared to be remarkable phenomena in the urban space of the late imperial Russia in both, a province and capital cities. They managed to become the fin-de-siècle translators of the developing mass culture and were also a place where high culture met the low. The author stresses the significant contribution of the pleasure gardens into the leveling of the audience tastes and into the leisure democratization.
This article is dedicated to the visigothic symphony, incarnated in the last canon of IV council of Toledo, when the Church took a possibility to form an ideology and to influence the reality. TheparticipantsoftheIVcouncilofToledodecreed that a king must be elected by bishops and nobility, and this fact testifies theirs political ambitions. AtonetheChurch (representedby most educated bishops, for example, Isidore of Seville and his disciples) imagines itself as protector of right king. Theparticipantsofcouncil created an ideal of governor, and the real king was obliged to follow it, otherwise he may deprive himself of the Churchs supporting. Butthejustandmerciful king disposed of Churchs defence: and the state criminal, who had encroached upon his life and throne, where anathematized. The ideas, formulated on IV council of Toledo, were developed in the kings code of law (Liber Iudiciorum), promulgated in 654.
The article considers the evolution of the concept of the political in the context of intellectual history, the criteria for its selection and its basic version.
On 1925 the Pope Pius XI established the Pontifical Commission "Pro Russia".
The article deals with the Byzantine background of the crisis in the Russian Church which unfolded in 1156–1169 and was caused by the introduction of new rules of fasting and asceticism by the Greek bishops under the leadership of metropolitan Constantine I of Rus'. The article begins with a close look at the controversies that shook the patriarchate of Constantinople in 1040s–1060s, and were caused by, at first, inaction, and later by decisive actions of emperor Manuel I Comnenos. A close study of these controversies sheds light on the struggle of the two ecclesiastical parties, both composed mostly of former and current deacons of Hagia Sophia. The first of these parties sought to preserve the status quo in the Orthodox Church as it took shape under the first Comnenoi emperors, particularly in relation to the fasting discipline that conformed to the old Studite tradition. This party was represented by Patriarchs Cosmas II Atticus and Nicholas IV Muzalon, metropolitan Eustathius of Dyrrhachium, and by such intellectuals as Michael of Thessalonica, Nicephoros Basilakes, Soterichos Panteugenes, and possibly by John Tzetzes. The other party sought to revise the rules of fasting and asceticism, seeing it as a return to the ancient "apostolic" norms, while being guided by the reformed monastic tradition (i. e., of the so-called "Evergetine Reform Movement"). Among its supporters, one can count the patriarchs Michael II Kourkouas and Theodotus II, such prominent officials as Leo Hicanatus and John Pantechnes, deacon Basil-"Bagoas", metropolitan of Ephesus, George Tornikos, and metropolitan of Rus', Constantine I. In their mutual struggle, these parties used all possible means and took turns in deposing the patriarchs who did not share their views, denouncing their opponents as heretics and persecuting them, if such opportunity arose. The second of these parties was especially successful in using these means. At last, at the 1156–1157 Church councils of Constantinople, the second party succeeded in dealing the final blow to their opponents, which allowed Constantine I and his followers to impose without reservation the new rules of asceticism in Rus'. However, after the 1166 council, when Manuel I started to be inclined towards the ecclesiastical union with Rome, those who just a decade earlier celebrated victory became subject of persecution. In particular, this change in policy could have been the reason for sending Constantine II of Kiev to Rus', if one is to understand this appointment as an honorary exile. Since 1170s the situation in the Oecumenical patriarchate changed yet again, and the influence of the former ecclesiastical party fades into history.
The study of masters and schools of the “long 12th century” seems to be a common topic for medieval studies. Throughout the 20th century, the history of medieval education has been the subject of research for such famous medievalists as Jacques Le Goff, Richard William Southern, Jacques Verger and many others. However, these were the ideas of the famous medieval masters that usually attracted the attention of researchers. Less successful medieval schools were mostly deprived of the attention of the medievalists, although the mere proof of their existence would allow a little deeper understanding of the 12th century French school world. The current article aims to fill this gap by proposing a methodology for studying medieval schools that takes into account the extent to which sources document their existence. For this purpose, examples of schools of different degrees of fame were analyzed: the popular school is represented by the Anselm of Laon’s one, the school of Odon of Tournai was chosen as a representative of a small pedagogical center, and the case of a little-known school was analyzed on the basis of the one at the church of St. Julia and Victor in Saint Omer. This main section of the current article is preceded by an analysis of the historiographic and source problems. From the point of view of historiography, the lack of reflection on the concept of “school” characteristic even for the specialized studies presents the greatest difficulty. From the source point of view, the difficulty is caused by the lack of special school terminology in the sources which is inevitable for medieval schools that lacked autonomy up to university period. In addition, the study of schools of the 12th century requires taking into account the distinctive feature of them which is personalization. The practical expression of this feature is the source references to specific masters, but not to schools. The main part of the article demonstrates that by taking into account the aforementioned historiographic and source study features, it becomes possible to add to the geographical map of the 12th century France not only the schools of famous masters, but also small pedagogical centers.
The article attempts to reconstruct a social portrait of a Russian female criminal of the 1730s on the basis of a set of judicial and investigative documentation. The self-identification of female criminals and information about their lifestyle from questioning speeches (rassprosnye rechi) often do not coincide with traditional views on the structure of society at that time. The article analyzes these inconsistencies, and also reveals women of which social groups most often committed crimes and what their motives were. As the study demonstrated, the social portrait of a female criminal of the 1730s wore blurred features. The reason of this was, on the one hand, in the problem of self-determination of women, who did not always know exactly what category they should belong to, and, on the other hand, in more general problems associated with the process of social reorganization of Russian society, which was unable to respond quickly to the numerous reforms proposed to (and partly imposed on) it by Peter I.
The article is devoted to analysis the Russian imperial policy towards currency of two imperial protectorates in the Central Asia — Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva at the beginning of the 20th century. The final aim of this policy was spreading or the Russian ruble circulation in these protectorates. The goal of the research is an evaluation on a base of this example the effectiveness of economical instruments of an advance of a continental empire into the Central Asia, clarifying the problems connected with attitude of local authorities and population to the Russian political, economical and legal values, i.e. level of acculturation of ruling elite and subjects of economic activity in Bukhara and Khiva. The ideas of different authorities of the Russian Empire on “monetary unification” of Russia and its protectorates are also analyzed as well as their contradictions during the process of development and realization of agreements on fixation of tan’ga’s rate of exchange toward the Russian ruble. The analysis is based on legal monuments, another documentary sources and notes of contemporaries
This textbook examines in detail the socio-economic development of Russia, the history of public administration, public thought, and foreign policy during the reigns of emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I. The author of analyzes how Alexander and Nicholas were treated at different times and what aspects of their activities interested historians to a greater extent.
The history of the mankind is closely connected with the universal processes and to a large extent determined by natural laws. History is made up of the process of interchanges of dominance between Countryside (e.g. ancient east societies, early medieval European states), with slow development, and Town (city-states of Antiquity with its protobourgeoisie and electiveness of governmental structures, modern Europe and America), with much more rapid one.
The article presents a historiographic analysis of the approaches of Soviet historians and politicians of the Comintern and post- Comintern era to South Africa's political and social realities of the 1920s-1950s.
Pope Gregory I letters contain a great number of juridical cases, concerning property litigations, controversies between clergy, complaints of priests and against them. But among all Gregory’s Register the letters, addressed to Archbishop Januarius of Cagliari and to Sardinian defensores are — in my opinion — the most fascinating and highly descriptive source. The legal process under Pope Gregory I is analyzed in detail by L. Giordano, and here I pretend to examine the principles of Pope’s jugement. The article is divided in three parts. The first is dedicated to audientia episcipalis, i.e. to judicial authority of Januarius. Gregory had to constantly remind to Januarius of his juridical duties. He appeals to metropolitan to take an active part in lawsuits between clergy and monasteries. At times pope was interfering in Sardinian lawsuits, but only in serious criminal cases. In other cases he preferred to advise the solution to Januarius. Januarius was frequently accused by citizens of Cagliari who were bored by his cupidity and misbehavior. The complaints against metropolitan had been sending to Rome, and Gregory had to judge them. He was a clement judge, like a severe but kind father. Gregory tried to affect in Januarius conscience and gave many biblical and moral examples in his letters. In fact when the pope discussed any complaint against metropolitan he used two arguments — Biblical text and Justinian law. In this way Bible give a juridical authority like laws. If the lawsuits touch the property of Sardinian monasteries, Gregory urged to call the independent arbiters — jurists or pious men. Their judgement had to be impartial, so binding for both two parts, and had to restore the lost agreement. Arbiters were elected by pope’s defensor or by metropolitan. In the upshot the litigation was one of means to restore the agreement between litigant or — broadly speaking — to restore the peace in Church, without what the Church life is can’t be imaginated.