This paper focuses on the 2011-2012 national elections in Russia based on the economic voting theory. We test significance of different economic factors on decline of the United Russia party and incumbent president Vladimir Putin electoral support. The economic growth in recent years has led to the ambiguous results in Russia. On the one hand, an average income increased almost two-fold and that resulted in expansion of the Russian middle class. On the other hand, such issues as income inequality and migration became much more salient in Russian society. Using the OLS methodology we test the significance of three factors on electoral outcome: regional spread of Internet, regional share of pensioners and regional crime rates, controlled on income and share of urban population. We find that spread of Internet is insignificant, but share of pensioners and crime rates negatively affect electoral support of the United Russia and Putin.
The paper considers the analysis of state effectiveness in housing and utility services in Russian regions in 2010-2013. The estimation of effective structure elements, which were introduced for appropriate functioning of housing and utility services. According to the methodology of system analysis with Data Envelopment Analysis was proved that the element of government policy as management companies are working ineffectively in Russian regions. Moreover, was identified the negative link between effectiveness and short-term debts. The increasing of short-term debts is connected with decreasing of effectiveness.
The article studies interaction effects in the election to the State Duma of the 7th convocation: 1) the influence of personal voting (in terms of incumbency, electoral experience and popularity of candidates) and extensive nomination of candidates in single-member districts (SMD) on the PR-tier results; 2) ‘necessary’ split-voting caused by the absence of the candidate from the favorite party in a SMD. The analysis has revealed that personal characteristics of candidates such as incumbency and electoral experience are only relevant in the case of A Just Russia. However, regarding non-parliamentary parties, it has been revealed that the strategy ‘to nominee as many candidates as possible’ has a positive effect on the list results. The analysis also demonstrates that the ‘necessary’ split-voting is determined by the ‘authorities - (non-systemic) opposition’ cleavage, when United Russia, on the one hand, and Civic Platform and PARNAS, on the other hand, receive these split tickets.
This work analyzes the symbolic policy effects towards Catalans in Spain. The main goal of this paper is to find symbolic elements which are directed on the process of creating the (stereotype) elements of the image of a Catalan as a member of ethnic groups and which are used mainly in the Spanish mass media and cinema. During our work we analyze photos from three Spanish newspapers and one film in which Catalan’s national identity are represented.