Connections between the psychological sovereignty and social beliefs: belief in a just world, religiosity, reward application, fate control were exanimated. 288 respondents (Mage = 23,7), 66 males participated in the survey. The foolowing tools were used: the Sovereignty of the psychological space questionnaire – 2010 (Nartova-Bochaver, 2014), the General and Personal Belief in a Just World Scales (Dalbert, 1999), and the Social axioms survey (Leung et al., 2002; Tatarko, Lebedeva, 2008). Использовались опросники: Суверенность психологического пространства – 2010 (Нартова-Бочавер, 2014), шкалы Вера в справедливый мир и Вера в личную справедливость (Dalbert, 1999) и Шкала социальных Аксиом (Leung et al., 2002; Татарко, Лебедева, 2008). There has been found that social beliefs differ depending on the sovereignty level. In addition, it has been revealed that in deprived individuals the body and territory sovereignty predictors of the social beliefs were, and in super-sovereign individuals the regime habits and territory sovereignty were. In the group of moderate sovereignty there weren’t any significant connections. It was concluded that the most adapted group is free of typical beliefs as a form of social stereotypes.
In the article, the symbolic map of dangerous and scary urban places is reconstructed on the basis of the social representations concept. The coordinate system of this 'symbolic map of fears and risks' is represented by the following constructs: 'the City - the Non-City' and 'Me - the Other'. It is argued that, as perceived by urban residents, fearsome places are mainly connected with 'the Others' in the city.
The article is dedicated to the results of the study, which was aimed at the research of adolescent’s socio-cognitive representations (images) of social groups (parents, classmates, teachers, policemen, public officials). 7000 high-school students from different cities and villages of Russia took part at the research. Age: 14—18. Deviant adolescent’s socio-cognitive representations (images) are also studied. The sample of deviant adolescents — 127 participants. Method: «80 adjectives» (by A. Rean) technique was used. Сontingency table method was used for the evaluation of correlation between adjective choice preferences and the participant’s group. χ-square test was used for statistical significance evaluation. The major findings are: adolescents use mostly positive adjectives for description of parents, mostly negative descriptors for policemen and public offocials, both for classmates and teachers. Descriptor-choice preferences are found among different groups of participants.
Objective. Search for socio-psychological antecedents for the individual’s belief in conspiracy theories of the origin of the pandemic. Revealing the dynamics of Internet users’ attitudes to the coronavirus pandemic in March-early June 2020. Background. As part of the study of the psychological mechanisms of the impact of the pandemic on the individual and society, an increasingly urgent task is to clarify the socio-psychological prerequisites of belief in conspiracy theories of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the relationship between attitudes towards the pandemic and the involvement of the individual in the use of social media. Study design. The paper presents the results of two online surveys conducted in March-April and May-June 2020 to study the dynamics of Russians’ belief in conspiracy theories of the origin of the COVID-19, taking into account involvement in social media and gender differences.
Participants. The first study involved 668 people (78.2% women) aged 17 to 80 years (M=30; SD=12.7); the second survey involved 986 people (56.9% — men) aged 18 to 76 years (M=36.63; SD=10.2). The survey geography covered various regions of Russia. Measurements. The basic tool in both studies was developed by T.A. Nestik questionnaire “Attitude towards the epidemiological threat”. The first study additionally measured the social axioms (SAS), moral foundations (MFQ), belief in the justice of the world and trust in social institutions. The second study additionally measured involvement in social media communications. Results. The 1st study found a connection between conspiracy beliefs and belief in a just world, low self-efficacy, moral foundations of ingroup/loyalty and authority/respect, low institutional trust, and social cynicism. In the 2nd study, it was shown that, compared to March-April, the level of belief of social media users in conspiracy theories of the origin of the pandemic, the severity of distrust in the health care system and skepticism about vaccinations significantly increased; both the fear of infection and the controllability of the threat have become less, but fears of a recurrence of epidemics have increased. It is shown that involvement in social media increases anxiety about the consequences of the coronavirus crisis, which in turn intensifies the search for conspiracy explanations of pandemic. Conclusions. Low social trust and the experience of an uncontrollable threat increase the susceptibility of social media users to belief in conspiracy theories of the origin of the pandemic.
Objective. To analyze and summarize the results obtained in various social sciences regarding the emergence and spread of prejudice.
Background. Prejudice is a complex issue, which is represented in different spheres of social science. In psychology, researchers analyzed individual or group-based factors, while in economics and sociology they investigate objective indicators of the socioeconomic development at the country-level. Today the data in the mentioned fields are not integrated.
Conclusions. Previous studies showed that GDP might indicate a significant factor in reducing bias, but only in countries with low social inequality or stable economic growth. Moreover, people with lower socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to the consequences of economic and socio-political changes. Psychological factors, in particular, the perceived inequality or intergroup threat defined additional perspective in the explanation of the relationship between objective socioeconomic indicators and the level of prejudice. In addition, the ideological attitudes (e.g., system justification) also influence how perceived inequality or threat, and bias. These findings are used to define future directions for research related to the integration of objective socio-economic indicators and psychological variables to analyze the nature of prejudices.
The article describes various social motives for using social networks (maintaining and developing relationships, belongness to a particular group, and self-presentation). The results of the study showed that users of social networks (n = 579) can be divided into four different profiles depending on the degree of their motivation to use social networks (1 - moderate orientation to belongness and self-presentation; 2 - orientation towards maintaining social relations ; 3 - low social motivation; 4 - high social motivation). The comparison of users from different profiles by their personality traits and online behavior showed that users with high social motivation demonstrate the higher level of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience compared with individuals from other profiles. Users from the “orientation towards maintaining social relations” profile do not differ from users with low social motivation in terms of the level of agreeableness and openness to experience, and users from the profile “moderate orientation to belongness and self-presentation” do not differ from users with high motivation regarding the level of neuroticism and openness to experience. In general, respondents from the profile with high social motivation demonstrate the most intensive use of social networks for all behavioral parameters. The smallest differences in behavior in the social networks are observed between respondents from the profiles “orientation towards maintaining social relations” and “low social motivation,'' as well as “moderate orientation to belongness and self-presentation” and “high social motivation”.The article describes various social motives for using social networks (maintaining and developing relationships, belongness to a particular group, and self-presentation). The results of the study showed that users of social networks (n = 579) can be divided into four different profiles depending on the degree of their motivation to use social networks (1 - moderate orientation to belongness and self-presentation; 2 - orientation towards maintaining social relations ; 3 - low social motivation; 4 - high social motivation). The comparison of users from different profiles by their personality traits and online behavior showed that users with high social motivation demonstrate the higher level of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience compared with individuals from other profiles. Users from the “orientation towards maintaining social relations” profile do not differ from users with low social motivation in terms of the level of agreeableness and openness to experience, and users from the profile “moderate orientation to belongness and self-presentation” do not differ from users with high motivation regarding the level of neuroticism and openness to experience. In general, respondents from the profile with high social motivation demonstrate the most intensive use of social networks for all behavioral parameters. The smallest differences in behavior in the social networks are observed between respondents from the profiles “orientation towards maintaining social relations” and “low social motivation,'' as well as “moderate orientation to belongness and self-presentation” and “high social motivation”.
Objectives. Investigate the individual’s ability to forgive concerning the characteristics of a friendly home environment. Background. The article continues the series of works devoted to the role of the home environment in interpersonal interaction. Everyday communication involves the distribution of different resources; this process requires personal qualities that ensure a tolerant attitude to violations of justice. Study design. At the first stage of the study, psychometric examination of the Russianlanguage Heartland Forgiveness Scale was carried out; at the second stage, a correlation study established the relationship between the qualities of a friendly home and the ability of the inhabitants to forgive. Participants. Five hundred ninety students (M=18,7, SD=1,1, 477 females, and 113 males). Measurements. Multi-scale questionnaires: Home Environment Functionality, Home Environment Relevance, and Home Attachment. Results. The Russian version of Heartland Forgiveness Scale includes two sub-scales Readiness to forgive and Lack of ruminations and has good reliability. The results of the main study were gender-sensitive. In females, the characteristics of a friendly home are positively related to the ability to forgive, while in males, they are negatively related. The highest number of connections is formed by functionality of home; in males — also by the home attachment. Conclusions. Against males, home implements amplifying function, and concerning girls — is ennobling; to develop the ability to forgive the young men need separation from home. The contribution of the home environment to the development of the ability to forgive is determined by the context of human development: both forgiveness and non-forgiveness are adaptive phenomena that are important for solving social problems, the content of which is set by the respondents’ gender.
In the period 2013–2014, a study was conducted on the market of services for the formation of work groups, taking into account the types of work groups and processes of group dynamics occurring in socio-psychological training.
For the basic typology of work groups authors used the Y.M. Zhukov, A.V. Zhuravlev, E.N. Pavlova model. Based on the results of a specially conducted expert survey aimed at identifying the needs of organizations in the formation of work groups, four main types of training for the formation of work groups were identified and characterized, they were named: "Inspiration", "Challenge", "Adjusting" and "Joint decision". As the analysis showed, each type of training is aimed at actualizing certain processes of group dynamics.
The survey of the conducted empirical research made it possible to draw a conclusion about the interrelations of the development of the processes of group and socio-psychological management of work groups of various types.
The results of this work are unique and can be used for practical purposes to effectively form work groups in organizations. In addition, they represent a methodological value for the training of specialists in the field of management and organizational psychology.
Nowadays, attitude towards childhood is changing, the value of individual development of the child is intensifying. The demand for the construction and maintenance of individual educational path is increasing. This creates a demand for new professional duties, including support of the individual educational program delegated to the profession of a tutor. The study aims to identify the social roles of the tutor in the first year of formation of the educational community of a private school. The hypothesis of the study: within the process of active formation of social community of the new school tutor, while interacting with parents, teachers and administration, takes on a number of informal duties associated with individual work with the student in excess of educational tasks. The qualitative research strategy was applied due to the need for in-depth analysis and identification of cause-andeffect relationships and hidden meanings in the system of social interactions. The sample (21 people) included representatives of various social roles: tutors — 8 persons; parents of pupils — 5 persons; representatives of administration — 3 persons; subject teachers — 3 persons; psychologists — 2 persons. Data gathering was carried out by the method of in-depth semi-formalized interview based on the developed research program (40 initial questions). It was revealed that the role-based set of duties of the tutor in the new school is not a given characteristic of the profession in question, but is a product of contexts and interactions that form the content of a unique institution under conditions of emerging communications, events and school’s way of life. At the end of the first cycle of life of the educational community of the school a wide range of roles of the tutor was formed, which actualizes the task of professional self-determination of the tutor in the system of social interactions.
Objective. Identify strategies a formation of “subordinate subject” and analyzes the strategies of obedience and resistance in self-narrative about encountering difficulties in childhood and adulthood.
Background. Obedience refers to classical problems in social psychology (experiments by S. Asha, S. Milgram, F. Zimbardo, S. Moskovichi, etc.). Forms of obedience are suggestibility, conformity, pliability, submission to authority; these forms are manifested in submission to internal imperatives; to authority persons; to small group; as well as situations. Along with conformity as a personal characteristic researchers study obedience based on the adoption of the role and regulation of role behavior. Role basis of subordination allows us to consider obedience as a condition for socialization. Resistance in psychological research is less common, which is associated with cultural standards and cultural priorities that influence the formation of research areas.
Results. According to the results of the study, young people under 30 years have different interpretations than older interviewees, but differences are of an age rather than generational nature.
Conclusions. The results of the study allow us to suggest that strategies of resistance were form at the childhood while overcoming internal issues and conflicts with peers. In adulthood, the strategy of subordination are stereotyped (stories about obedience to parents), stable scenarios resistance were construct in area to social challenge.
Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.
H. Lieberman’s, and J. Troup’s Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance is widely known in the English sources of social psychology. Wherein, it is used to explain various phenomena and cognitive memory research, perception and categorization. The review describes the basic tenets of the theory, concerning the relationship of psychological distance and the level of constructs. A brief description and basic key studies of different topics within the theory are included. The importance of the theory constructs at different levels of social cognition is stressed. Basic concepts of the theory are given to describe and explain various phenomena of social cognition. The key researches in the field of the theory are described to deal with such phenomena as the fundamental attribution error, the prediction of social events, behavioral intentions, self-control, goals and means of action. In conclusion, issues that remain unsolved at the present stage of development of the theory are discussed.
The paper presents outcomes of a research on the correlation between one's confidence in communication, self-attitude and his/her satisfaction with relationships with significant others. The tested hypothesis was that self-attitude and confidence are the interrelated characteristics of personality, with self-confidence as their common element, and that positive self-attitude and high levels of self-confidence in the individual correlate with his/her satisfaction with the relationships with significant others. As it is shown, self-attitude and self-confidence become integrated, resulting in the person's deeper understanding of the relationships and of his/her role in them, and reflect themselves in the integral indicator of relationship satisfaction. The paper concludes that the outcomes of current research enrich the existing views on backgrounds and conditions of the person's satisfaction with relationships with significant others.
The aim of our study was to explore phenomenology and identify correlates of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective (JSvictim) among young men and women. The hypothesis was that the victim position as a personality trait is accompanied by adverse emotional states and certain worldviews which make the subject less resilient. The findings of our study show that the victim position as a personality trait becomes a risk factor for resilience, especially in women.