This paper analyzes the relationship between internet use and cultural consumption in Europe. Much research was made in order to disentangle the impact of internet upon everyday life. At the same time, the results of these studies differ. On the one hand, internet is reported as a substitution for traditional forms of social interactions. On the other hand, plethora of papers report positive effects of internet on social activity and leisure, and define online practices as a part of emerging cultural capital. Along with it, the relationship between online-practices and corresponding offline-practices still lacks research. In this work we use the example of cultural practices of cinema, concerts and opera attendance to reveal the impact of internet use for cultural purposes. In particular, we analyzed the relationship of downloading/watching films online and downloading/listening to music online. Using Eurobarometer 79.2 data we found that online music and film consumption is positively related to corresponding offline activities. At the same time, this relationship is moderated by other social features such as age, size of the area where the respondent lives and also by the level of country development.
The main research question of this sociological research can be formulated as follows: how do young people perceive the image of prestigious job today, what are the characteristics (attributes) it has, and how does it differ from the other (undesirable) activities, if not to limit the respondents' answers purely formalized verbal questionnaire with questions about a prestigious job. What are these representations, if we try to reveal it in the form of images – visual data? This article will examine social representations of prestigious job obtained by using not yet common approach in this area, namely drawing technique. The advantage of applying non-verbal technique lies in the fact that respondents have an opportunity to identify independently the semantic basis, composition of the answer, because there are no existing restrictions in the form predetermined by the researcher answers and cognitive framework to the question. This study will also demonstrate which characters and features of prestigious job are key, and which, on the contrary, is not accentuated in the views of young people today. In general, it can be noted, that the understanding of prestigious job among young people is variable and versatile, because diverse interpretations of the studied concept were presented in the form of various symbols and subjects. So, based on the analysis and interpretation of the drawing data, in the current study there were identified several (12) resistant types of representations of prestigious job. The objective of this article is not to oppose verbal techniques something different, but show cognitive possibilities of using in the sociological field study of non-verbal techniques and thereby expand "methodological horizon” of empirical sociology. This paper belongs to the genre of descriptive studies.
The article examines a communicative situation concerning the open-ended questions during the VCIOM`s omnibus made in 2008. Based on the primary data, the study shows how a designed question undergoes changes during the communication between an interviewer and a respondent. Formulations of the questions that respondents answered to were reconstructed; the recommendations for the interviewer to record the primary data were made.
The publication is for scientific and informational purposes and reflects the positions of the leading researchers regarding qualitative methods and opportunities to use this methodology in social forecasting. In particular, the paper considers its cognitive capacity in social research practice, the role of expert knowledge as a major source of forecasting information, the areas of social forecasting available for the analysis, the opportunities of semantic analysis of the notion «future», analytical schemes of forecasting as well as the role and the position of a sociologist using qualitative approach in research.
The subject of the analysis in this article is the hierarchy of working Russians ' statuses from the point of view of their qualification. The article clarifies the wording of the concept of qualification status and tests specific indicators for its evaluation in modern Russian society. The method of construction of the qualification status scale is described. The results of the analysis of indicators of this scale for the working-age population of Russia are shown. The structure of the obtained status hierarchy and the ratio of the person's place in it with its other characteristics are analyzed (ascriptive characteristics, professional affiliations, self-assessment of your professional skills etc.). It is determined that of the ascriptive characteristics of the most important for the qualification status of the employee is his age. The specificity of the qualification status of working Russians from different educational and professional groups also are analyzed. Special attention paid to comparison of objective indicators of qualification status of Russians with subjective assessments of this status. The empirical basis for the analysis was the data of the 25th wave of the annual survey of HSE RLMS held in 2016.
December 19, 2016 three tragedies occurred: mass poisoning by surrogate alcohol in Irkutsk, murder of Russian ambassador in Turkey and the terrorist attack at Christmas market in Berlin. Studies show that public opinion about the causes and circumstances of such events is associated with the way these issues are covered in a variety of the media: television news, printed media and Internet publications. In this study, we examined how these tragedies were presented in the Russian media. The murder of the ambassador in Turkey was the most popular subject, and all types of media aired similar views. The tragedy of mass poisoning by surrogate alcohol was very differently covered in different types of media, from criticism of the authorities to attempts to deproblematize the situation. The terrorist attack in Berlin attracted the least attention of the media and contrary to murder of the ambassador in Turkey had a lot of interpretations. The analysis of news in three types of the media shows that the degree of attention to these issues and the image formed by them depend not so much on the objective circumstances of the tragedy, but on several socio-political factors, including connectivity with other relevant media issues, the type of media and its target audience, as well as the official position of the authorities.
The article is devoted to the development of a constructivist approach to the study of occupational risk. The author proposes a conceptual analysis scheme, which is based on the theoretical premises of risk sociology, such as: the inevitability of risk, its reproducibility during interactions, social conditionality. The core of this scheme is the position according to which occupational risk is inextricably linked with the decision maker. Special attention was paid to the influence of the “life world” of the profession on the formation of the subject's perceptions about risks.
The author shows the possible contribution of a constructivist approach to solving such a sociological problem as the discrepancy between the actual behavior of workers and the statutory safety regulations.
The empirical base of the study consists of 12 semi-structured interviews with employees of coal enterprises in Novokuznetsk. It was revealed that the actions of the employees are determined by the perceptions of the allowable costs and possible benefits. These perceptions, which are formed under conditions where the professional environment is a set of routineized hazards, are shifted in certain circumstances towards possible benefits. As a result, those behaviors that, from the standpoint of a realistic approach to risk analysis, are considered a violation of formal safety standards, can be sustainable actions aimed at obtaining benefits that are not necessarily material.
The article systematizes the main provisions of issue ownership theory, according to which politicians and parties closely associated with important issues and perceived as being able to solve them most effectively, receive greater support of population. This theory has gained popularity in recent years. However, the definition of issue ownership and its measurement still causes disagreement among researchers. The stability of the phenomenon in time continues to be discussed, as well as the possibility of its application not only to political parties, but also to individual politicians. Researchers distinguish two types of issue ownership: competence (confidence in the ability of a political actor to solve problem) and associative (spontaneous identification of a political actor with issue). These "forms of ownership" on the agenda is measured using various questions. It creates difficulties in comparation the results of studies carried out in line with this theory. Issue ownership plays significant role in the political struggle and can contribute to the victory of the candidate (or party) in elections. This situation stimulates politicians to "capture" the most advantageous issues. However, political actors have unequal opportunities for this. The advantage is enjoyed by parties that are currently in power. In addition, the effect of issue ownership for the authorities and the opposition can be different. Opposition benefits from the media attention to the issues associated with it, but does not lose significantly due to active discussion of the issues that the ruling party owns. While authorities lose their votes when the news covers the issues that the opposition owns.
The popularity of digital content about make-up and self-care has been steadily growing during the recent years. Most of its producers and consumers are young people. The article analyzes three Russian YouTube-channels (“Arina Viscera”, “ND Beauty Channel” and “Gev Mua”) to study how their hosts construct their personal brands in the context of beauty content production. The article employs the technique of discourse analysis and a qualitative content analysis. The research results show that the beauty vlog format provides users with various ways of presenting themselves to the audience as they can choose different ways of demonstrating their expertise, comparing themselves to viewers, manifesting their passion for makeup and showing emotional and physical resources that are used in the production.
The paper presents a comparison of two modern popular approaches to the analysis of discussions in the media and the way that the media shape the public's attention to certain issues. The author describes the origin and evolution of these concepts; a special attention is paid to the prerequisites for their occurrence and the initial disciplinary affiliation. The major content differences, such as different requirements for the discussions are considered in the article. The agenda-setting theory is largely focused on the study of media reports concerning the issues where personal experiences are lacking among the population (given that the empirical object exists in reality). The constructivist approach to social problems does not refer to lacking experience, it is mostly implies a connection between a constructed problem and reality. Besides, the agenda-setting theory puts aside the influence of the actors of the media discussions, while for the constructivist approach it is one of the key issues under examination.
In Russian cultural context it becomes more widespread when the objects of material culture and arts appear to provoke not only disagreement among the experts but also conflicts and struggle between broader socio-political groups, apparent in frequent public scandals, protests, trials etc. It seems necessary to develop a theoretical framework that contributes the analysis of such cases and the objects generating them. In this paper we examine the conceptual resources applied by the social researchers to graffiti – the symbolic object that constantly, for decades excites contradictory reactions and public debates in different countries, including Russia. We describe the two approaches (so called “constructivist” and “structuralist”), demonstrate their limitations and claim that, while these two approaches are used by the same researchers as supplementary, they contradict each other. In conclusion we propose the alternative approach which is aimed at the reconstruction of local configuration of relations (between different agents, between agents and space, between agents and culture objects belonging to the space, and etc.) which is questioned and reconsidered through the “problematic” culture objects.
The article provides an analysis of concepts of «social mass» and «mass behavior» proposed by the Soviet sociologist B. A. Grushin. The study covers the time from 1967 to 1987 when the key Grushin’s works devoted to the mass consciousness and related concepts appeared. The basis of the analysis is Grushin’s published lectures and scientific publications. The paper also includes data from studies of the history of Russian sociology, Grushin’s and his contemporaries’ memories. The author discusses factors that influenced Grushin’s scientific interests, analyzes his views of «mass» and «mass behavior» as well as their strengths and limitations. To conclude, the author states that the notions proposed by the sociologist thirty years ago are still relevant and can be used to develop the modern theory of «mass» and «mass consciousness». An essential feature of Grushin’s concept is that it makes it possible to combine ideas of his Western and domestic predecessors.
The paper describes the notion ofcorporate charity as part of corporate social responsibility that deals with the business response to the society`s expectations in economic, legal, ethical and charitable dimensions. Such an approach is needed because tax evasion and violation of labor laws are common in Russia. This is why it is hard to place the companies that do charitable work but do not pay taxes or do not sufficiently invest in environmental safety as it is required by the law among socially responsible companies. It is important to differentiate between charity in the form of donations and philanthropy as a process of creating public goods beyond business legal responsibility, bypassing state bodies
Abstract. Over more than ten years, Russia has been at the top of the list of the OECD countries by traffic-related death rate per 1000 residents. The death rate in Russia is five- to six-fold greater than in most of the developed countries, given that the number of cars per 1000 residents is much lower. Despite the increased attention and financing, the problem of road traffic injuries remains unresolved. The implementation of the 2006- 2012 Road Safety Federal Target program did not bring about the expected results. Russia`s lagging behind the leading countries in traffic injury prevention is due to the ineffective system of law control and implementation. The problem of corruption in the road safety management is of special attention. According to a number of experts, today the political efforts to tackle the road safety problem is only aggravate the situation and contribute to the increase in corruption cases which shows the ineffectiveness of the policies. Effective road traffic safety policy requires a good knowledge of the situation. With the lack of scientific studies and regular publications devoted to this problem, there is nothing left but taking impulsive and random decisions.