Drawing on the all-Russia representative survey data, the given paper aims to study public demand of Russians for the state cooperation to solve their problems in three different fields, as of workfare policies, social investment, and social support. Active labour market policies are mostly demanded by youth that is struggling to access good jobs. Demands for active social support are likely to root in personal situations, particularly, those requiring solving financial and housing issues, which these Russians are not able to tackle themselves, thus demanding transfers from the state.Demands for active social investment policies are more are the most heterogeneous. Independence from the state is typical for the most prosperous part of the population who do not face any serious problems. To meet these diverse demands, the government should differentiate and prioritise the means of social policy.
The practices of multi-actor child care is described and analyzed in the article. The empirical base is survey of Muscovites with children of 3 to 5 years old in November 2012. The results of the research have showed the significance of the kindergarten services as the institutional service that allowed parents to continue their professional careers. Along with that, the survey has revealed unequal distribution of child-care duties between mothers and fathers. According to opinions of parents, mothers are perceived five times as more involved into child-care than fathers. It is adjusted to the fact of different strategies of job search and placement. Mothers find a job with working hours that is in accordance with preschool schedule, fathers don’t taking into account this point. The policy of compensation for families which children don’t attend the kindergarten is discussed in the conclusion.
In this interview we are talking with outstanding Russian sociologist and philosopher Igor S. Kon about history of the revival of Soviet sociology in the early 1960s as well as about history of the Institute of Sociology. The narrative begins with a story of the emergence of relations with the Russian and American sociologist Pitirim A. Sorokin, and, more broadly, with a story of the review of Western ideas in Russian sociology. In this regard, a specific place takes the story of Soviet censorship and Kon’s attempts to influence the change in the rules for its implementation in the field of science. Distinct subjects are the ‘seminar movement’ in sociology, seminars of Yuri Levada, sociologists’ meetings in Kääriku. Names of many prominent Soviet sociologists who stood at the origins of the revival of sociology in Russia are mentioned.
The article is devoted to the origin and development of sociological services of the biggest Russian TV companies in the 1990s and early 2000s. The audience measurement, recently referred to as public opinion studies, has always been an important source of information to assess both the performance of the editorial staff and the mood of the audience. Sociological services run by major TV channels in the 1990s carried a lot of weight in the company’s structure. The Author’s study aims at filling the gaps in the history of the development of sociological services. The data have biographical value; most of information obtained during the interviews with the head of the Petersburg Russian State Company for Television and Radio Broadcasting has not been published before. They shed light on various facts of the history of the weighting methods in Russia. In particular, they help to describe in detail the work of the Channel Five sociological service. The author also describes the milestones in the history of media measurement in Russia.
The article discusses Russian nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in terms of their innovativeness. Based on the empirical data we describe the scope of innovativeness of the Russian nonprofit organizations (48 % of the surveyed NGOs have implemented innovations), and identify the most innovative and the least innovative areas of NGOs’ functioning. We analyze correlations of its management characteristics and innovativeness in five spheres: relations with the external environment, relations with the internal stakeholders, organization’s culture, leadership, management of processes and resources. We have identified that such characteristics as participation of various external stakeholders in decision making, participation of the organization in the professional networks; number of employees, number of volunteers, inclusion of employees in decision making; frequency of meetings of the board; organization’s orientation towards innovativeness; sufficiency of funds for implementing innovations, existence of the strategic plan positively correlate with the level of innovativeness. Negative correlation is with the number of years of the leader’s length of service. Number of the members of the board seems not to be related to innovativeness of the Russian NGOs.
The article reviews the results of changing the survey mode from PAPI (paper and pencil interviewing) to CAPI (computer assisted personal interviewing) in some panel household surveys in different countries. Based on a number of experimental and non-experimental studies within the panel household surveys, we explored the effect of using CAPI on data collection process as a whole and data quality, in particularly. We showed that CAPI has a number of advantages over PAPI. Using of CAPI leads to the reduction of the fieldwork duration. In addition, CAPI is positively perceived by respondents and interviewers, does not have a negative effect on response rates and panel attrition rates. Moreover, it reduces missing data. At the same time, some studies suggest that using CAPI may lead to the increase of measurement error in sensitive and open-ended questions. Researchers should also take into consideration some technical and practical issues related to programming, training and selection of interviewers, as well as the choice of hardware and software used in CAPI.
In the year of 2018, the Internet is no more a wholesome phenomenon, but when recognised as a subject of studies, becomes similar to a teenager having already gained a certain independence. It understands its communication with other people but still wants to change the whole interaction system in order to nd its own place. At least, this is exactly the impression we receive: the impres sion of an ambitious object of study, of a misunderstood one. In this issue we offer you an occasion to think about different scenarios of the relationship between studies on the Internet and classic social sciences approaches. We do not focus on methodological issues, but on the Internet in its being an object of studies and a scienti c problem. We focus on studies on the Internet that accumulate knowlege about the Internet as a social phenomenon, being also an internation al and indisciplinar area of research. So cial sciences are represented in this case by sociology and anthropology, as well as other ones such as mediastudies, stud ies on sciences and technologies (STS), social geography etc.
Intersectionality has recently become one of the key approaches in contemporary feminist scientific works. However, despite a solid theoretical foundation and a potential for exploring inequalities, little is known about the notion beyond gender studies. Gender agenda is getting more and more visible in the public discourse; however it still represents a niche area and does not have enough impact on the rethinking of social processes. One of the ways to bring this agenda to the attention of a broader academic community may be applying intersectionality within quanti-tative data in general and public opinion surveys in particular.
This paper analyzes the relationship between internet use and cultural consumption in Europe. Much research was made in order to disentangle the impact of internet upon everyday life. At the same time, the results of these studies differ. On the one hand, internet is reported as a substitution for traditional forms of social interactions. On the other hand, plethora of papers report positive effects of internet on social activity and leisure, and define online practices as a part of emerging cultural capital. Along with it, the relationship between online-practices and corresponding offline-practices still lacks research. In this work we use the example of cultural practices of cinema, concerts and opera attendance to reveal the impact of internet use for cultural purposes. In particular, we analyzed the relationship of downloading/watching films online and downloading/listening to music online. Using Eurobarometer 79.2 data we found that online music and film consumption is positively related to corresponding offline activities. At the same time, this relationship is moderated by other social features such as age, size of the area where the respondent lives and also by the level of country development.
The main research question of this sociological research can be formulated as follows: how do young people perceive the image of prestigious job today, what are the characteristics (attributes) it has, and how does it differ from the other (undesirable) activities, if not to limit the respondents' answers purely formalized verbal questionnaire with questions about a prestigious job. What are these representations, if we try to reveal it in the form of images – visual data? This article will examine social representations of prestigious job obtained by using not yet common approach in this area, namely drawing technique. The advantage of applying non-verbal technique lies in the fact that respondents have an opportunity to identify independently the semantic basis, composition of the answer, because there are no existing restrictions in the form predetermined by the researcher answers and cognitive framework to the question. This study will also demonstrate which characters and features of prestigious job are key, and which, on the contrary, is not accentuated in the views of young people today. In general, it can be noted, that the understanding of prestigious job among young people is variable and versatile, because diverse interpretations of the studied concept were presented in the form of various symbols and subjects. So, based on the analysis and interpretation of the drawing data, in the current study there were identified several (12) resistant types of representations of prestigious job. The objective of this article is not to oppose verbal techniques something different, but show cognitive possibilities of using in the sociological field study of non-verbal techniques and thereby expand "methodological horizon” of empirical sociology. This paper belongs to the genre of descriptive studies.
This paper reports on the methodology of the first Russian representative victimization survey (the data is publicly available online). Victimization surveys are conducted to analyze the crime structure, socio-demographic characteristics of victims, crime circumstances, the behavior of victims and law enforcement agents. In world practice, there are two main national victimological studies — NCVS in the US and CSEW in the UK, both conducted annually or even more often since the 1970s — 1980s. However, up to date, there were no victimization surveys in Russia conducted in the same way. Previous victimization surveys either include the minimum of questions about victimization experience or were conducted on very small samples and did not allow to have reliable estimates for the number of victims or discover the crime structure and patterns of post-victimization behavior in a reliable way. The victimization survey we present (Russian Crime Victimization Survey - RCVS) based on CATI technology and simple random sample that represents the population of the Russian Federation (no quotas have been used). We interviewed 16818 persons, out of which 3001 admitted being victimized during the last 5 years, 3719 answered, that they did not have victim experience but were asked detailed questions about social and demography background, and 10098 also answered, that they did not have victimization experience and proceed only with questions about sex, age, and place of living. The questionnaire is mainly composed of dichotomous questions, so circumstances of a crime can be reconstructed and described according to Russian legal discourse (as common descriptions of crimes in Russia sometimes differ from legal ones). In the paper, we describe in detail and substantiate the used methodological solutions, and show its connection with other victimization surveys in the world.
The article examines a communicative situation concerning the open-ended questions during the VCIOM`s omnibus made in 2008. Based on the primary data, the study shows how a designed question undergoes changes during the communication between an interviewer and a respondent. Formulations of the questions that respondents answered to were reconstructed; the recommendations for the interviewer to record the primary data were made.
The publication is for scientific and informational purposes and reflects the positions of the leading researchers regarding qualitative methods and opportunities to use this methodology in social forecasting. In particular, the paper considers its cognitive capacity in social research practice, the role of expert knowledge as a major source of forecasting information, the areas of social forecasting available for the analysis, the opportunities of semantic analysis of the notion «future», analytical schemes of forecasting as well as the role and the position of a sociologist using qualitative approach in research.
The subject of the analysis in this article is the hierarchy of working Russians ' statuses from the point of view of their qualification. The article clarifies the wording of the concept of qualification status and tests specific indicators for its evaluation in modern Russian society. The method of construction of the qualification status scale is described. The results of the analysis of indicators of this scale for the working-age population of Russia are shown. The structure of the obtained status hierarchy and the ratio of the person's place in it with its other characteristics are analyzed (ascriptive characteristics, professional affiliations, self-assessment of your professional skills etc.). It is determined that of the ascriptive characteristics of the most important for the qualification status of the employee is his age. The specificity of the qualification status of working Russians from different educational and professional groups also are analyzed. Special attention paid to comparison of objective indicators of qualification status of Russians with subjective assessments of this status. The empirical basis for the analysis was the data of the 25th wave of the annual survey of HSE RLMS held in 2016.
December 19, 2016 three tragedies occurred: mass poisoning by surrogate alcohol in Irkutsk, murder of Russian ambassador in Turkey and the terrorist attack at Christmas market in Berlin. Studies show that public opinion about the causes and circumstances of such events is associated with the way these issues are covered in a variety of the media: television news, printed media and Internet publications. In this study, we examined how these tragedies were presented in the Russian media. The murder of the ambassador in Turkey was the most popular subject, and all types of media aired similar views. The tragedy of mass poisoning by surrogate alcohol was very differently covered in different types of media, from criticism of the authorities to attempts to deproblematize the situation. The terrorist attack in Berlin attracted the least attention of the media and contrary to murder of the ambassador in Turkey had a lot of interpretations. The analysis of news in three types of the media shows that the degree of attention to these issues and the image formed by them depend not so much on the objective circumstances of the tragedy, but on several socio-political factors, including connectivity with other relevant media issues, the type of media and its target audience, as well as the official position of the authorities.
The article is devoted to the development of a constructivist approach to the study of occupational risk. The author proposes a conceptual analysis scheme, which is based on the theoretical premises of risk sociology, such as: the inevitability of risk, its reproducibility during interactions, social conditionality. The core of this scheme is the position according to which occupational risk is inextricably linked with the decision maker. Special attention was paid to the influence of the “life world” of the profession on the formation of the subject's perceptions about risks.
The author shows the possible contribution of a constructivist approach to solving such a sociological problem as the discrepancy between the actual behavior of workers and the statutory safety regulations.
The empirical base of the study consists of 12 semi-structured interviews with employees of coal enterprises in Novokuznetsk. It was revealed that the actions of the employees are determined by the perceptions of the allowable costs and possible benefits. These perceptions, which are formed under conditions where the professional environment is a set of routineized hazards, are shifted in certain circumstances towards possible benefits. As a result, those behaviors that, from the standpoint of a realistic approach to risk analysis, are considered a violation of formal safety standards, can be sustainable actions aimed at obtaining benefits that are not necessarily material.