The publication is for scientific and informational purposes and reflects the positions of the leading researchers regarding qualitative methods and opportunities to use this methodology in social forecasting. In particular, the paper considers its cognitive capacity in social research practice, the role of expert knowledge as a major source of forecasting information, the areas of social forecasting available for the analysis, the opportunities of semantic analysis of the notion «future», analytical schemes of forecasting as well as the role and the position of a sociologist using qualitative approach in research.
The subject of the analysis in this article is the hierarchy of working Russians ' statuses from the point of view of their qualification. The article clarifies the wording of the concept of qualification status and tests specific indicators for its evaluation in modern Russian society. The method of construction of the qualification status scale is described. The results of the analysis of indicators of this scale for the working-age population of Russia are shown. The structure of the obtained status hierarchy and the ratio of the person's place in it with its other characteristics are analyzed (ascriptive characteristics, professional affiliations, self-assessment of your professional skills etc.). It is determined that of the ascriptive characteristics of the most important for the qualification status of the employee is his age. The specificity of the qualification status of working Russians from different educational and professional groups also are analyzed. Special attention paid to comparison of objective indicators of qualification status of Russians with subjective assessments of this status. The empirical basis for the analysis was the data of the 25th wave of the annual survey of HSE RLMS held in 2016.
December 19, 2016 three tragedies occurred: mass poisoning by surrogate alcohol in Irkutsk, murder of Russian ambassador in Turkey and the terrorist attack at Christmas market in Berlin. Studies show that public opinion about the causes and circumstances of such events is associated with the way these issues are covered in a variety of the media: television news, printed media and Internet publications. In this study, we examined how these tragedies were presented in the Russian media. The murder of the ambassador in Turkey was the most popular subject, and all types of media aired similar views. The tragedy of mass poisoning by surrogate alcohol was very differently covered in different types of media, from criticism of the authorities to attempts to deproblematize the situation. The terrorist attack in Berlin attracted the least attention of the media and contrary to murder of the ambassador in Turkey had a lot of interpretations. The analysis of news in three types of the media shows that the degree of attention to these issues and the image formed by them depend not so much on the objective circumstances of the tragedy, but on several socio-political factors, including connectivity with other relevant media issues, the type of media and its target audience, as well as the official position of the authorities.
The article systematizes the main provisions of issue ownership theory, according to which politicians and parties closely associated with important issues and perceived as being able to solve them most effectively, receive greater support of population. This theory has gained popularity in recent years. However, the definition of issue ownership and its measurement still causes disagreement among researchers. The stability of the phenomenon in time continues to be discussed, as well as the possibility of its application not only to political parties, but also to individual politicians. Researchers distinguish two types of issue ownership: competence (confidence in the ability of a political actor to solve problem) and associative (spontaneous identification of a political actor with issue). These "forms of ownership" on the agenda is measured using various questions. It creates difficulties in comparation the results of studies carried out in line with this theory. Issue ownership plays significant role in the political struggle and can contribute to the victory of the candidate (or party) in elections. This situation stimulates politicians to "capture" the most advantageous issues. However, political actors have unequal opportunities for this. The advantage is enjoyed by parties that are currently in power. In addition, the effect of issue ownership for the authorities and the opposition can be different. Opposition benefits from the media attention to the issues associated with it, but does not lose significantly due to active discussion of the issues that the ruling party owns. While authorities lose their votes when the news covers the issues that the opposition owns.
The popularity of digital content about make-up and self-care has been steadily growing during the recent years. Most of its producers and consumers are young people. The article analyzes three Russian YouTube-channels (“Arina Viscera”, “ND Beauty Channel” and “Gev Mua”) to study how their hosts construct their personal brands in the context of beauty content production. The article employs the technique of discourse analysis and a qualitative content analysis. The research results show that the beauty vlog format provides users with various ways of presenting themselves to the audience as they can choose different ways of demonstrating their expertise, comparing themselves to viewers, manifesting their passion for makeup and showing emotional and physical resources that are used in the production.
The paper presents a comparison of two modern popular approaches to the analysis of discussions in the media and the way that the media shape the public's attention to certain issues. The author describes the origin and evolution of these concepts; a special attention is paid to the prerequisites for their occurrence and the initial disciplinary affiliation. The major content differences, such as different requirements for the discussions are considered in the article. The agenda-setting theory is largely focused on the study of media reports concerning the issues where personal experiences are lacking among the population (given that the empirical object exists in reality). The constructivist approach to social problems does not refer to lacking experience, it is mostly implies a connection between a constructed problem and reality. Besides, the agenda-setting theory puts aside the influence of the actors of the media discussions, while for the constructivist approach it is one of the key issues under examination.
In Russian cultural context it becomes more widespread when the objects of material culture and arts appear to provoke not only disagreement among the experts but also conflicts and struggle between broader socio-political groups, apparent in frequent public scandals, protests, trials etc. It seems necessary to develop a theoretical framework that contributes the analysis of such cases and the objects generating them. In this paper we examine the conceptual resources applied by the social researchers to graffiti – the symbolic object that constantly, for decades excites contradictory reactions and public debates in different countries, including Russia. We describe the two approaches (so called “constructivist” and “structuralist”), demonstrate their limitations and claim that, while these two approaches are used by the same researchers as supplementary, they contradict each other. In conclusion we propose the alternative approach which is aimed at the reconstruction of local configuration of relations (between different agents, between agents and space, between agents and culture objects belonging to the space, and etc.) which is questioned and reconsidered through the “problematic” culture objects.
The article provides an analysis of concepts of «social mass» and «mass behavior» proposed by the Soviet sociologist B. A. Grushin. The study covers the time from 1967 to 1987 when the key Grushin’s works devoted to the mass consciousness and related concepts appeared. The basis of the analysis is Grushin’s published lectures and scientific publications. The paper also includes data from studies of the history of Russian sociology, Grushin’s and his contemporaries’ memories. The author discusses factors that influenced Grushin’s scientific interests, analyzes his views of «mass» and «mass behavior» as well as their strengths and limitations. To conclude, the author states that the notions proposed by the sociologist thirty years ago are still relevant and can be used to develop the modern theory of «mass» and «mass consciousness». An essential feature of Grushin’s concept is that it makes it possible to combine ideas of his Western and domestic predecessors.
The paper describes the notion ofcorporate charity as part of corporate social responsibility that deals with the business response to the society`s expectations in economic, legal, ethical and charitable dimensions. Such an approach is needed because tax evasion and violation of labor laws are common in Russia. This is why it is hard to place the companies that do charitable work but do not pay taxes or do not sufficiently invest in environmental safety as it is required by the law among socially responsible companies. It is important to differentiate between charity in the form of donations and philanthropy as a process of creating public goods beyond business legal responsibility, bypassing state bodies
Abstract. Over more than ten years, Russia has been at the top of the list of the OECD countries by traffic-related death rate per 1000 residents. The death rate in Russia is five- to six-fold greater than in most of the developed countries, given that the number of cars per 1000 residents is much lower. Despite the increased attention and financing, the problem of road traffic injuries remains unresolved. The implementation of the 2006- 2012 Road Safety Federal Target program did not bring about the expected results. Russia`s lagging behind the leading countries in traffic injury prevention is due to the ineffective system of law control and implementation. The problem of corruption in the road safety management is of special attention. According to a number of experts, today the political efforts to tackle the road safety problem is only aggravate the situation and contribute to the increase in corruption cases which shows the ineffectiveness of the policies. Effective road traffic safety policy requires a good knowledge of the situation. With the lack of scientific studies and regular publications devoted to this problem, there is nothing left but taking impulsive and random decisions.
This paper aims to explore the dominant model of the national identity of Russians. Drawing on the national representative survey data conducted in Autumn 2015 by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Science, the author comes to a conclusion that Russians demonstrate a socio-cultural consensus in their attitudes towards state and society. Russians perceive society as Power passing the responsibility for the sustainable and equitable development to the state. The statism of Russia is a bottom-up phenomenon since people of Russia overwhelmingly support a priority of the society’s interests over the ones of an individual. The majority perceives Russia as a unique civilization that should avoid the Western way of modernization. The idea of the ‘unique way’ is a distinct feature of the national identity of Russians; it plays a pivotal role in the societal cohesion of the whole society. In this model, the state is considered to be responsible for any breach in the society, in particular for the injustice and exploitation. That’s why the growing number of violations of the rights of Russian workers increases the risks of societal conflicts and lead to a delegitimisation of the official authorities. In conclusion, the author suggests the state being more responsible for the Russian nation in the sense of protecting the population from the structural violence and exploitation.
In sample surveys, open-ended question is the only data collection tool that allows respondents to express their opinions in their own words — the advantage is especially manifested while rapid social changes when structured questionnaires do not keep pace. The main shortcoming of the open-ended question logically continues its advantage: for the researcher, it is almost impossible to achieve reliability and simplicity of data processing without significant losses of information, for the respondent, it makes to do a hard job to think up a genuine answer. The article is to outline some principles how to classify open-ended questions in order to develop coding algorithms for each class. The article’s concerns are (1) what informs the openness and/or closeness to a questions, (2) whether openness and closeness of question is a dichotomy or a continuum, (3) what general presuppositions for classifying answers to open-ended questions could be.
The article reports the results of the study of a peculiar type of everyday judgments about distributive justice. It examines the ways the social context affects normative judgments about the distribution of costs necessary for the public good maintenance from a third-party point of view. We used the factorial survey approach to estimate the effects of contextual information about the cost recipients’ kinship relations, the specific mode of providing information about their current financial standing, as well as the size of total costs on the perception of distributive justice. The participants generally tended to distribute costs compensating to those in the worst financial situation at the expense of those who were in a better financial situation if the recipients of costs were relatives, the information of cost recipients' financial standing described their incomes rather than debts, and the total costs were relatively low. Alongside with the statistically significant main effects, the pronounced first-order interaction effects between the total costs size and two other experimental factors were revealed: the increase in total costs diminished both the effects of kinship and of the information provision form (incomes vs. debts), thereby pushing participants to perceive an egalitarian division of costs as fair. The results support the general hypothesis about the contextual nature of distributive justice and promote our understanding of its manifestations in the form of ordinary normative judgments concerning the distribution of costs which are necessary for the public good maintenance.
The article is a continuation of the work published in the second issue of the Monitoring of Public Opinion (No 2, 2015) which reconstructs non-protest apolitical ethos of the volunteer participation denying the compliance between the volunteer’s role and the protest activity. The article considers an alternative point of view allowing the co-existence of the volunteering and the protect participation. The purpose of the study is to reconstruct the categorical framework of the volunteering protest ethos using the interviews with volunteers which admit protest participation as part of volunteering. The reconstruction represents five derived dimensions formed by the dichotomically opposed meanings of the protest volunteering. There are two ways to legitimize the protest participation of the volunteers in the protest ethos: either to speak in favor of the «essence of the volunteering», or to speak in favor of the «object of preoccupation»: each argument has its limits and scope of tasks posed for the protest action as well as different meanings of the volunteerism and protest actions.
The study problematizes the role of flexible working hours in the life of self-employed professionals (freelancers). High levels of autonomy to manage time not only bring benefits but may also lead to self-exploitation. The study is based on the data of the online survey “Freelancer Census” (2019) and the RLMS-HSE (2017). The authors argue that compared to the national average freelancers have to work in non-standard working hours (working night, weekend, and holiday) when other workers take a rest. Regression analysis shows that non-standard working hours may lead to poor work-life balance in the life of freelancers. The most vulnerable groups are women, individuals who have spouses (partners) and freelancers having minor children.