The XVIIIth April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development, which was organized at the Higher School of Economics, included a section on “Demography and Labor Markets”. The first day was devoted to the problems of registration and methods of analysis of population data, migrants in contemporary Russia and their integration into the Russian economy, and the use of data mining tools in demographic research. On the second day, there was a discussion of workers’ subjective well-being, unemployment, and global and regional labor markets. The list of speakers included B. Rao and P. Singh (both: Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee), A. Sulaberidze (Ilia State University, Georgia), S. Biryukova, D. Gizdatullin, D. Ignatov, E. Mitrofanova, A. Muratova, E. Papanova, E. Polyakova, A. Rezyapova, A. Shevchuk, E. Soroko, D. Strebkov, E. Vardanyan, and N. Voronina (National Research University Higher School of Economics), Y. Florinskaya and I. Kazenin (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation), Т. Blinova, K. Doronina, P. Sushko (Russian Academy of Sciences), and M. Giltman (Tyumen State University). Russian experts in labor economics, demography, and math, namely S. Roshchin, A. Vishnevsky, L. Smirnykh, V. Gimpelson, M. Denisenko, R. Kapelyushnikov, A. Makarov, and N. Mkrtchyan, also took part in the discussion.
A bulk of literature on processes related to a triad of “money — power — inequality” highlight power as a main driver. Given the cause-and-effect relations, this fact can be considered as logical and reasonable. If research of the mentioned processes deals with the family (household) as an actor, it appears to be enriched (more complicated). As households often consist of men and women, biological sex and culturally constructed gender should be taken into account. Most researchers focusing on gender issues agree that gender relationships imply power relations. What is a peculiarity of family power relations and how are they related to money management? This article aims to depict main perspectives related to conceptualization of the indicated notions as well as empirical operationalization partially. The first part of this article reviews power patterns developed by S. Lukes, M. Foucault, P. Bourdieu and discusses issues related to definitions of “financial power” and ways of its operationalization if it is applied for family relationships. The second part deals with economic and sociological concepts which reveal and explain determinants of power relationships. The third part analyses currently ongoing changes in the gender order and their potential effects on the structure of power functions in the family.
The article demonstrates that crimes that come to the attention of the criminal police have varying worth in the eyes of Russian policemen and, consequently, attract unequal efforts. The worth of crimes is closely related to the criteria for evaluation of police performance. The data derived from 12 in-depth interviews with Russian police officers, nine indepth interviews with senior students of Moscow University of Russian Interior Ministry who are undergoing practice within police departments, and online discussions within the police community show that policemen in Russia made their practical decisions while balancing between multiple orders of worth. The theoretical framework of data interpretation is represented by symbiosis theories of valuations and the institutional logics approach. Operationalized as a set of cultural rules and expectations defining legitimate grounds for assessing and determining what rational behavior in a given organizational context really is, the concept of institutional logics stresses the interrelations between value-oriented and material dimensions of social action but allows one to stress the hierarchy and constant competition between various orders of worth in an organization. Four institutional logics — state, clan, quasi-market, and professional — are empirically identified. Each of them brings its own order of worth to the police organizational environment. Crimes in the eyes of the police always have a price — expressed in either “checkmarks,” points of recognition by the boss or colleagues, or money. The data suggest that, despite the hierarchy between the orders of (crimes’) worth within the police system as a whole, in each case, institutional logics and criteria of worth related to them compete with each other. Depending on the characteristics of the criminal case and the situation in the police department at a given moment, the competition between various orders of worth is resolved by policemen in different ways. The results of the study shed light on the functioning of police discretion and help to accentuate the dysfunctional side of police reform in Russia.
The second half of the XX century was marked by a dramatic change in the information sector of the economy, which led to the serious transformation in traditional labor relations. There have appeared new forms of mass employment such as freelance and telejob. However in Russia this subject has not been studied yet while there is a large number of relevant empirical and theoretical studies carried out in the developed countries The paper presents a review of Western quantitative studies devoted to freelance and conducted since the beginning of the 2000s. The following issues are reflected upon: elaboration of new terminology, cross-country freelance statistics, advantages and disadvantages of freelance, motivation of freelancers, structure of work process; relations between freelancers and their customers; and professional communities of freelancers.
The paper presents an approach to describe and analyze the accumulation of specific capital in a Soviet design organization during the late Soviet period. The study covers the period from 1968 to 1982. The system of fashion production under the Late Socialism is less explored compared with the Stalin and Thaw periods. The functioning of regional Clothing Design Houses which constituted a specific feature of the Soviet system of fashion production during this period is underexplored as well. Finally, as far as we know this study is the first attempt to apply the Bourdieu’s theory of the field of production to the Soviet fashion production. Typically, researchers do not use sociological theories of fashion production for the analysis of Soviet fashion. The study implies the categories of specific capital, hierarchy, and dynamic of the field of production. The system of fashion production of the Late Soviet period is considered as a particular case of fashion production in a non-capitalist society. There are two components of the study. The first one reconstructs the hierarchy of the Soviet system of fashion production. The second one describes professional strategies to accumulate specific capital and to occupy a position in the field of production. The study focuses on two cases of development and presentation of clothes collections by Perm Clothing Design House during All-Union and cluster meetings of designers in 1968 – 1969 and 1979 – 1982. The paper relies on published research on Soviet fashion history, archive documents, and in-depth interviews with ex-employees of Perm Clothing Design House. The results discuss the applicability of the term of specific capital to the explanation of hierarchy construction processes in the Late Soviet field of production of fashion. The paper contributes to the earlier conclusions about the ambivalent Soviet fashion policy. Also, it introduces the definition of specific capital as official representatives’ appreciation of the balance between the officially approved fashion trend of a season and creative search achieved by designers of a certain Clothing Design House. It suggests that there was a weird combination of socialist and pseudo-market practices penetrating the Soviet fashion field of restricted production.
The presented book review is devoted to “Otkhodniks” by Plusnin Ju., Zausaeva Ya., Zhidkevich N., Pozanenko A. (editor — S. Kordonsky). Otkhodnichestvo is a type of labor migration implying a scenario in which an adult, able-bodied family member temporarily leaves home to seek work in another area. Otkhodnichestvo has a long history in Russia but a new wave of its mass dissemination appeared in recent decades. The reviewed book defines a concept of otkhodnichestvo, considers what similarities and dissimilarities there are between this phenomenon and other forms of labor migration (i.e. jobbers, rotation workers, and temporary cross-border migrants). It reveals the otkhodniks’ motivation and economic patterns, describes typical social and demographic characteristics of contemporary wandering workers, evaluates otkhodniks’ cultural and social impact on local their community’s everyday life, etc. The book is based on a series of fieldwork studies conducted by the authors in small Russian towns over the last four years. In the review Barsukova discusses her impressions of the book, outlining its unusual genre. One uncontestable advantage of the book is an ethnographic material allowing readers to become immersed in all details of otkhodnik life. Otkhodniks usually come from small rural towns. They are forced to leave their homes to seek jobs in other areas because there are no opportunities for them to earn money in their permanent place of residence. Moreover, a key driver of the discussed form of labor migration is the otkhodniks’ aspiration to provide normal living conditions for their family members. The book review author highlights that otkhdoniks should be discussed not just in terms of their informal employment, the context of family relationship transformation should also be taken seriously into account.
The authors seek to find a structural basis for the success of collectively executed projects. Here they continue to use previously elaborated concepts of structural folding and creative tension, but they go on to advance their approach by including the cognitive variables in the analysis instead of merely focusing on social structure. In this article, they examine the sociological factors that explain why some creative teams are able to produce game changers— cultural products that stand out as distinctive while also being critically recognized as outstanding. The authors build on work pointing to structural folding— the network property of a cohesive group whose membership overlaps with that of another cohesive group. They hypothesize that the effects of structural folding on game-changing success are especially strong when overlapping groups are cognitively distant. Measuring social distance separately from cognitive distance and distinctiveness independently from critical acclaim, the authors test their hypothesis about structural folding and cognitive diversity by analyzing team reassembly for 12422 video games and the career histories of 139727 video game developers. When combined with cognitive distance, structural folding channels and mobilizes a productive tension of rules, roles, and codes that promotes successful innovation. In addition to serving as pipes and prisms, network ties are also the source of tools and tensions.