Future development and methodological contradictions in moral psychology are considered from the perspectives of social psychology. Determinants and evolution of notions of the subject of moral psychology are examined; the potential of cognitive approach to social-psychological issues in moral psychology is analyzed.
Peculiarities of preschool educational environment under different programs of education in a preschool educational institution and at home are revealed. Motivational, social and emotional components of school adaptation are determined. It is proved that features of the social situation of development in preschoolers make a huge impact on their attitude to educational activity, schoolmates and a teacher. The results showed that educational environment in kindergartens facilitated a school pupil role taking and a successful school adaptation while home educational environment did not promote such adaptation to a full extent. The content of educational programs in preschool educational institutions has an impact on all aspects of school adaptation: attitude to learning, attitudes to schoolmates and a teacher as well as satisfaction with school as a whole.
The empirical study results on the cultural specificity of the conflict behavior strategy choice of Russian and German universities’ students in the context of the learning environment are presented. The sample represented by 195 respondents of which 114 people are Russian students and 81 people are German students. To explore strategies of conflict behavior the author’s questionnaire based on a survey method and content analysis was developed. The following conflict situations were considered: conflict between two students; conflict between student and teacher; conflict between student and parents. Cross-cultural comparison of the samples demonstrated that Russian and German students in a situation of conflict with students and teachers prefer to use different strategies of conflict behavior. For Russian respondents this strategy is the avoiding, and for the German ones is the collaborating. There are no significant differences in preferences strategies in a situation of conflict with parents between the two groups. Although the Russian students most frequently use the accommodation strategy and the German students use the collaboration. In addition, the Russian respondents choose the model of behavior depending on the situation and the German students act regardless of the conditions and opponents. There are significant relations between such culture dimensions as individualism (horizontal and vertical), masculinity, power distance, long-term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, and the choice of the conflict behavior strategies. For Russian students the choice of strategy in almost all situations is significantly associated with the level of masculinity and individualism, and for German ones the choice is associated with a long-term perspective. These results reveal the significance of such predictor of conflict behavior as culture.
The study of psychosocial factors that increase individuals vulnerability to the negative consequences of exposure to stress, particularly to the development of maladaptive, antisocial responses, is one of the priority areas for psychology and social sciences. The goal of our research was to explore the connections between exposure to stressful events, dark triad personality traits, moral disengagement and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. Our results demonstrated positive correlations between narcissism and subjective well-being as well as between moral disengagement and psychopathy. As part of our research the following questionnaires were translated for use in Russian samples: List of Threatening Events, Moral Disengagement (8-item version), Satisfaction with Life Scale, Primary Care PTSD Screen.
Psychological predictors of academic achievements in university students were studied (N = 176). The aim of the study was to investigate how the Big Five personality traits contributed to different academic achievements. The Unified State Examination (USE) scores were used for evaluation of academic success prior to university admission and grade point average was used as a measure of current academic performance. Introversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism and Openness were shown to be important predictors of academic achievements in Russian university students. These results are only partially supported by the results of similar studies conducted in Western Europe and North America. Possible reasons of the above discrepancies are discussed. It is concluded that these discrepancies are due to country-specific differences in educational environment and requirements to student personality traits.
The paper discusses the phenomenon of self-reflection as a philosophical issue, as an object of psychological investigation and as a characteristic of human existence. The paper is focused on the problem of ambivalence of self-reflective processes. Some studies highlight the connection of self-reflection with depression, neuroticism and pessimism while other works underline the positive role of self-reflection in adjustment and self-regulation processes. To resolve this contradiction a differential model of self-reflection which distinguishes several types of reflective self-attitude including types supporting and hindering effective self-regulation of life activity is proposed.
The Dark triad as a constellation of three sub-clinical traits of Machiavellism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy attracts researcher’s attention in the recent decades. The Dark triad is associated with exploitive and manipulate behavior, and limited empathy. Most studies showed connections of the Dark Triad traits with other personality and behavioral characteristics. However, studies about the perception of persons with "dark" personality are rare. The first purpose of this study is to reveal how people with the extreme manifestations of the Dark Triad traits perceive and evaluate Positive and Negative other people. The second is to analyze the association of the respondent’s traits with the evaluation and attitude to the Positive and Negative persons. The sample consists of 460 undergraduate students. Positive and Negative images of the other (video clip) were presented to the respondents. Then each image was evaluated by the (non)relevant characteristics of the Dark Triad and the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of the attitude. Also, respondents were diagnosed with Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. The polarization of assessments and attitudes toward Positive and Negative images of the others were discovered. The role of the negative traits of the respondents was manifested. Higher values of the Dark Triad traits make the Negative image more complex and difficult to evaluate in opposition "good-bad" The cognitive component of attitude toward Positive and Negative image become closer for respondents with high Dark triad traits.