The question is: why Homer and Hesiod do not mention asses, speaking only about mules?
On the Beginning of Study of Chersonesus Taurica
The scholarly significance of Chersonesus lies primarily in the fact that its agricultural territory, the chora, was uniquely well preserved until very recently (up to the beginning of the 1990s). In Chersonesus we can therefore study both the city and its chora, i.e. the ancient state in its entirety. In this sense Chersonesus serves as an archaeological epitome, a model of a Greek city-state. An important component in the study of chora is putting its archaeological remains on a map or plan. Maps of the Herakleian Peninsula drawn in 1786 under the supervision of Karl Hablitz are the main result of the initial period of study of Chersonesus. These maps are prominent examples of scientific documentation and serve as an important historical source. One of them was first published by Metropolitan Evgeny (Bolkhovitinov). The date indicated on the map, 1786, marks the beginning of exploration of Chersonesus. Up to the present time it has been associated with the excavations carried out in 1827 by the marine officer K. Kruze. However, the year 1827 marks the beginning of archaeological excavations in Chersonesus, while 1786 should be regarded as the date when general research on Chersonesus began.
The issue of the paper is the history of the plot, used in Greek and Roman stories about a young man, turned into an ass
The article deals with the toponyms occurring in the Aramaic and Arabic texts of the Late Sassanian and Early Moslem period concerning the biography of the prominent Eastern Syrian mystical writer Isaac of Nineveh. Two particular cases are analysed. Firstly, it is reported by Ishodnah and other writers that Isaac left Qatar in the mid-7th century and became bishop «of Nineveh», whence his cognomen Ninwāyā. The history of Nineveh and its mythological reception are traced to the 7th c. BC. Due to the never forgotten glory of Assyrian past, any new centre which ever re-emerged at Kuyunjik or Nabi-Yunus hills (which had been parts of Assyrian Nineveh) and even the pre-Mosul settlement on the opposite bank of the Tigris (once called Nav-Ardashir) received the name of «Nineveh» and were thought to be the same Assyrian Nineveh. It was this western pre-Mosul settlement that is really implied by «Nineveh» of Isaac. The population lived on the western bank of the Tigris in Nav-Ardashir, while the historical city of Nineveh had been abandoned. Bishops of Nineveh resided in the monastery of Beth Abe (in the Forests). It can be concluded that the term Ninwaya in the episcopal title of the Church of the East was a mere convention. Secondly, the toponym Matut is brought under analysis. After leaving Beth Nuhadra Isaac moved northwards to Susiana (Beth Huzaye), where he spent some time in the monastery of Rabban Shapuhr before moving to the mountain cave where he spent the rest of his hermitic life. The name of the mountain in Aramaic sounds Matut and it is said that Matut encircled Susiane which makes «Matut Mt.» to be a rather vast segment of Zagros. It is impossible to explain the horonym quite reliably, but it can be hypothetically interpreted as a late form of Ancient Mesopotamian GN Mat-Utem (a part of Zagros region at upper Lesser Zab was called that as early as the 2nd mill. BC), used in extended sense.
The metaphor “paideia is the lesser mysteries” determines both the substantial and the structural unity of St. Basil’s Address to the youth. Initially connected to the Eleusinian cult, the notions of the “lesser” and the “greater” mysteries have formed part, by the time of St. Basil, of the platonizing philosophical koine and have been consistently applied to the various levels of the philosophical progress. In Basil’s Address, as well as in two other epistles to the youth authored by Basil’s fellow Cappadocians Gregory of Nazianz (To Nicobulus) and Amphilochius of Iconium (To Seleucus), this imagery occupies a prominent place and underlies the proposed model of interaction between Christianity and classical paideia.
The paper presents an interpretation of a passage from Diogenes Laertius in which he tells that Heraclitus called the sun, the moon and the stars σκάφαι (bowls). These bowls accumulate evaporations (ἀναθυμιάσεις), which causes alternation of day and night and sequence of seasons.
This article deals with the poem Medea by the Latin poet Dracontius, who lived in the Vandal Africa in the end of the fifth – beginning of the sixth century. Analysis of the terms and characters of this poem in the context of Dracontius’s works in general implies that in this case, as well as in other texts by the Carthaginian poet, the mythological plot became an allegory of the events contemporary to the author and relating to the Romano-Vandal conflict. This political interpretation, in its turn, helps to give a new explanation of the differences between versions of the myth given by Dracontius and by classical authors, Euripides and Seneca.
The author presents a study of The Letter to Abbas Simeon, a well-known pseudepigraph included in the collection of ascetical works of Isaac the Syrian (7th century). The work proves to be The Letter to Patrikios by the West Syrian writer Philoxenos of Mabbog. Manuscript tradition of the interpolation and probable reasons for the false attribution are discussed. The latter were probably connected with the controversy over «Messalianism».
The paper presents an edition of two tablets of Old Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic, a tablet from Tell Harmal (designated as OB Harmal1 in the edition by A.R. George) and a tablet from Nippur (OB Nippur in George’s edition). Both texts are extensively commented upon. New interpretations are proposed for ll. 3, 4, 7, 8, 9 in the tablet from Tell Harmal and ll. 5, 13//2′ in the Nippur tablet.