Some countries treat public-private partnerships (PPP) within public procurement legislation, whilst others adopt a specially designed PPP law to distinguish PPPs from the routine purchases of goods and services. There is no evidence to suggest which of the approaches is more efficient. Differences are visible even for highly developed economies such as the UK (no special PPP law, rather policy guidance) and the US (special PPP laws adopted in over 30 States, counting.) Does it make sense to have a special PPP legislation? If yes, what should such legislation govern? The last question seems tautological as “a PPP legislation should govern public-private partnerships”, yet we claim that in order to promote economic efficiency, the law should focus on the environment that surrounds public-private relationships. We develop a model of PPP based on the system of standard contractual agreements between the government and the private sector, like the typical contracts used in public procurement. Due to the asymmetric information, some socially desirable projects are too costly to run within a standard procurement contract, this is where partnerships should help. Specific features that are needed to make those costly projects feasible, include a reduction in the information costs through a closer monitoring within the co-production, a reduction in the production costs through a lesser red tape, and extra benefits (distinct from subsidies and monetary rewards) to the private partner, arising from the cooperation with the state (e.g. reputational gains, access to new resources, etc.) In an institutional/cultural environment with [most of] these features in force, a special PPP legislation is not needed (UK and Australia are prominent examples), as there is no scope for a further reduction of the number of infeasible (costly) projects. Otherwise, a PPP law that offers the above features (e.g. by creating a dedicated PPP advisory unit) is socially desirable.
This paper is devoted to the development in contemporary Russia of the institutes with mediator functions. Th e development on regional level (case of Sankt-Petersburg) of Public and Consultative Councils from one side and Institutes of Commissioners for human rights and for children rights are analyzed from comparative approach. Th e subjects of research are history of creation and development of this institutes, normative base, personal structure and results of its activities. The conclusions about realization of paternalistic or partner’s model of state-society relation in every cases are formulated.
The analysis of local self-government practices conducted on the basis of the Laboratory for Local Administration field researches and scientific literature study reveals the information deficit of local authorities. The Federal State Statistics Service provides full information for federal and regional authorities, while substantial part of statistics is too aggregated or superficial to be used by municipalities. In accordance with these facts the following subject of the investigation was formulated – used by local authorities mechanisms of collecting information about socio–economic conditions in the municipal unit.
The purpose of the article is to identify all the sources of information that are used by local self-government bodies to tackle the problem of information deficit and to fill the gaps in state statistics. In order to achieve the goal both theoretical and empirical materials were used. One of the sources is interdepartmental communication with the local offices of government authorities such as police, migration service, pension fund, tax service and others. Another tool is to collect data themselves, but such statistics is difficult to gather, because local authorities are not empowered to do this, so natural and legal persons have not to provide data to them. Furthermore, the internal municipal statistics would be illegitimate and practically not applicable for usage. So, to solve the problem of information deficit, at least the following measures should be implemented: 1) to obligate government authorities to provide information to the local self-government, 2) to improve the horizontal information exchange between local authorities and territorial offices of government authorities in the municipality; 3) to legalize internal statistics of local self-government bodies (now state authorities accept only collected by State Statistics Service figures, which are often incorrect).
Efficiency of public sector production is a key issue for the public administration. One of the most popular ways to reach it is a competitive bidding. As far as infrastructure objects are concerned, governments around the world have increasingly used private firms in developing, financing, constructing, and maintaining them. Over the last two decades traditional procurement in this field evolved in public-private partnerships (PPPs) of Design-Build-Finance-Operate type, or life-cycle contracts. These contracts help to solve some problems attributed to traditional procurement.
In the first section of the article we focus on the characteristics of PPPs and evaluate benefits and costs for all the participants. The main gain for the government and consumers is in getting the public good of high quality. Since the private firm will not only construct but maintain the object during its life cycle, it is motivated to use new technologies and innovations to decrease future operational costs. The firm in its turn is secured against the risk of insufficient demand and get regular payments from the government. The next section is devoted to the European experience of applying life-cycle contracts and literature review. Despite obvious advantages some EC countries suggest that not all PPPs are well-managed, and therefor may not deliver the expected benefits. These contacts can be inflexible in respect to changing needs of the public sector, lengthy, complex, and costly for the participants. One of the subsections deals with the transition economies that demonstrate lack of an appropriate legal framework, economic and political instability, higher risks, etc. In conclusion we discuss the opportunities for the Russian government to implement life-cycle contracts in public projects.
The article is devoted to the research of the historical and current development of the public administration in the USA as a theory and the complex of educational programs and institutions. Th e authors survey of becoming and the peculiarities of functioning of the professional Associations connected with Public administration in the USA.
The article looks upon the carrier consulting as an urgent resource to form competence and improve professional skills of workers in the field of public and municipal management. It shows that this kind of consultations is one of a very effective means to improve performance of the whole organization. The results of the analysis of carrier orientation and the kinds of carrier the office workers have, can well be used for consulting and as contents for effective training and developing specialists in public and municipal administration.