The Roman Gods outside Rome: Native or Foreign Ones?
The article deals with the problem of Roman perception of their own gods outside Rome studied through analysis of auspicia militiae. These auspicia assumed a special character due to the rituals performed by a general before he set out for war (the so called “auspicia of exit”). The templum minus (auguraculum) put by a general at the military camp should also be regarded as a part of ager Romanus, where he “communicated” with the gods. Thus, a connection between him and the native gods was created, while they acted exclusively as the gods of Roman territory. Such approach to the matter reflects communal stage in the development of the Roman worldview. At the same time it contained the origin of universal concept of the future Mediterranean empire.
The paper deals with Greek and Roman historical tradition on Romulus's family, the former, where Romulus was born, and the latter, which he created as a result of the rape of the Sabine women. The Greek authors, represented in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, reported about the family tree of the city founder, emphasized close relations between Numitor and Romulus, and wrote about the marriage of Romulus and Hersilia and the birth of their children. The Roman authors, as they are known from Livy, made casual remarks of such episodes of Romulus's life, as they interpreted Romulus as the arbiter of his own destiny, and this was the way he set a personal example for the Romans. Such approach to the Romulus's legend reveals different cultural and historical grounds of Greek and Roman historiography.
The article is devoted to the comparison between the declarations of independence of the United States and of Spanish American nations. The full list of Spanish American declarations of independence is compiled for the first time in historiography. The questions raised in this proposed comparison bring a scholar to the major issues of the independence movements in the New World (and in the end, to the discussion of the nature of British and Spanish colonial societies in America) and thus – do not have clear and final answers.
In modern Academia, history is occasionally classified as a social science. My aim is to demonstrate why history has not become a real social science, although in 1960-80s historians who represented the most advanced trends within the discipline aspired to this. Two faced status of history is problematized as a conflict between theory and method when historians adopt the theories of social sciences. Although historians have sought theoretical renewal by turning to the theories of various social sciences, they rarely could use techniques and ways of cognition that represent normally used by sociologists, psychologists or anthropologists – psychometric testing, sociometric monitoring, ethnographic description, in-depth interview, long-term observation. What does happen if a historian bases his/her research on a theory developed for another discipline, which has other ways of working with subjects in the present? Examples from a number of historical sub-disciplines could be offered to answer this question.
A research of the methodology of history of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky within the russian version of the neukantianism. Its main characteristic is the source studies. The interpretation of the sources of historical studies is found within the phenomenology.
A comparison of the epistemological foundations of concept of the methodology of history of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky with “psycho-physiological law of absence of signs of of another soul” of the founder of the Russian version of neo-Kantianism A. I. Vvedensky and the principles of “descriptive psychology” of W. Dilthey. It is shown the strategic importance of the principle of recognition of another soul in the epistemological concept of A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky. Identified commonalities of A.I. Vvedensky, V. Dilitium and A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky in the understanding of the object of historical knowledge – of the objectified product of mental life /historical source, the aim of human cognition – understanding Other, and the method – similar to the private mental life.
The article deals with the phenomenon of "reading as a conversion" in the historical and cultural context, a temporary fixed boundary of the transition from the ancient schools of the Christian structure and content of the text in the Late Roman Empire, which allows to identify this phenomenon. The experience of conversion to God through Bible reading to gain faith and immortality of his soul was the discovery that in the history of European culture, particularly associated with the name of Aurelius Augustine. The article considers the texts of Augustine ("Confessions" and "Monologues") Augustine as a material for the understanding of the features of the phenomenon of reading as a conversion of "clinging feelings" in search of God to the dialogue of the mind and the senses in finding faith in the texts of the period of Augustine’s baptized (387) and debated with the Neo- Platonists. In this way the output is logical to seek and need the hermeneutic interpretation of biblical texts as a didactic preaching and practice.
The article is concentrated on a governmental project to train professors of medicine for Russian universities and Medical and Surgical Academies from native Russians. The project was launched in 1816. The author of the project was a Scottish physician James Wylie who obtained the position of a surgeon at the Russian Imperial Court and was promoted at the presidential post in the Medical and Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg and appointed as the General Inspector for Army Board of Health. Wylie proposed to cease the international recruitment of professional physicians and to proceed with the training of Russian medical elite in the University of Edinburgh. The project was successfully implemented. The author places Wylie’s ideas in the contexts of medical and educational theories of the beginning of the 19th c. and demonstrates them originating from the political and economic concepts of the modern state.