The purpose of this essay is to explore the prospects for the use and development of Thompson Clarke’s ideas from his well-known paper, “The Legacy of Skepticism.” The paper is particularly concerned with Clarke’s criticism of the so-called “standard human-conceptual constitution,” which provides a ground for the distinction between plain questions of ordinary life and a philosophical intellectual quest. In support of Clarke’s criticism, it is compared to Donald Davidson’s criticism of scheme-content dualism. Moreover, the paper provides an assessment of G. E. Moore’s arguments against philosophical skepticism, which can be applied to a critical study of metaphysical preconditions in contemporary epistemology and for elaborating on the extended conception of “ordinary.” The main conclusion of the paper is that skepticism, being the logical result of these preconditions, mostly depends on the distinction between pure logical and epistemological possibilities, which is presupposed by the very idea of a conceptual scheme. This distinction is the basis for drawing radical and intuitive skeptical conclusions.
Modern analytic philosophy uses Wittgenstein's ideas to justify relativistic ontologies. The variety of ways of using language is seen as evidence of the relativity of truth. The article shows the incorrectness of such interpretations: correlating the established ways of using the language with reality is a sign of language confusion, "flycatcher"
Thompson Clarke’s paper marked the beginning of the revival of the interest to the problems of philosophical skepticism in the early 70’s. In his paper Clarke raises the issue of skepticism’s relevance to the philosophical inquiry and provides a new interpretation of the traditional skeptical problems. Also Clarke points out the significance of G. E. Moore’s defense of common sense. Particularly, he shows that the lack of ordinary contexts does not make skeptical questions and Moore’s attempts to answer these questions are meaningless, as philosophers of ordinary language claimed. However, skeptics and their opponents usually share a theoretical presupposition - the idea of standard human-conceptual constitution. As Clarke points out, this constitution supposedly determines the limits and content of the human knowledge about the world. The notion of objective knowledge and the conception of philosophy itself are based on the idea of such a constitution. However, Clarke, by applying the concepts of dream and hallucination, illustrates that this idea contradicts the functioning of the concepts we use to learn about and understand the world.
Using the case of Grūto parkas (Lithuania), the article explores the practices of preserving and exhibiting the Soviet monumental heritage. Official discourses describing similar expositions update the memory of collective trauma and Soviet colonialism. However, the traumatic experience and “naked Soviet ideology, which suppressed and hurt the spirit of the nation” cannot be reproduced in the aesthetic experience of the open-air museum visitor. To prove this thesis, a dual-methodological framework is employed: a historical reconstruction of the estimated aesthetic impact of the monument in the place for which it was realized; the analysis of subjective experience of the visitor and the technique of its construction. The article argues that monumental sculpture, whatever its material form, artistic merit and ideological significance in the past, is primarily an art object and exhibit that makes it a potentially attractive item for a collection. The relationship between the material form of the monument and its ideological value is historical; it is connected to the space where the people engage in the collective commemorative practices in accordance with group identity discourses. Soviet monumental propaganda is, first of all, an urban project. The resettlement of the monument from the avenue or square modifies the aesthetic and social experience, depriving it of the ideological value that depends on the circumstances of the exposure. To describe the process of appropriation of the Soviet monumental heritage by moving objects from public urban spaces in a natural (park) landscape, the concept of “naturalization” is introduced. The method of preserving objects of monumental propaganda in the landscape environment can be positively understood and described as a retrospective of the national school of monumental sculpture.
In this article I investigate the place of philosophy in the organizational structure of the Humboldt university model. I reconstruct an understanding of the meaning of philosophy for the new university, as well as look at to what extent declarative claims and rhetorical formulation coincided with the real-life practice of including philosophy into the system of the production and dissemination of university knowledge. Through looking at university manifestoes and statutes, as well as bureaucratic circulars, I look to the history of German philosophy as the history of the formation of one of the university disciplines. I conclude by arguing that the implementation of university reforms in the 19th century assisted the transformation of philosophical knowledge into a well-structured and methodologically diverse discipline.
In his work Critiquing Husserl: Elements, Eugen Fink reviews the main hurdles encountered by phenomenological research in philosophy. Among these hurdles he lists the interweaving between moments of description, analysis and speculation; the outer-philosophical presuppositions conicting with the claim of presuppositionlessness; the non-thought relation to the philosophical tradition; contradictions between the philosophical project and the practiced method; idols (or operative concepts) of phenomenological research, such as “immediate givenness,” “prepredicative experience,” “rigorous science,” “ultimate foundation.” This discussion became the topic of the present article.
e emergence of “new wars” in the second half of the twentieth century has changed the conventional paradigm for thinking about military con icts and called into question the relevance of what previous theorists have o ered. However, the most useful approach to the analysis of war is based on the widely accepted concep- tual framework of the theory of just war, which is itself grounded in analytical eth- ics. e interpretations of just war theory by Michael Walzer, Nick Fotion, Brian Orend and Je McMahan are central to an ethical understanding of war, but they are of only limited value for considering the topic of “new wars,” which meanwhile are in constant flux. Philosophical thinking on these matters is failing keep pace with the transforma- tion of the object it is considering. War is becoming a media phenomenon, a subject for futuristic speculation, and a routine reality for a number of countries and regions. It is losing its clear spatial and temporal contours, and although we are gaining greater control over its management and increasing the variety of forms that military con icts take, we are losing control over the overall situation. War should be now seen as a complex phenomenon of social reality that demands a revision of the outdated and limited ethical supports that have been provided for this “necessary evil.” Military conflicts are among the images of modernity that must be apprehended in all their complexity.
The article considers the novel Pride and Prejudice by British writer Jane Austen as it is reflected in its adaptations, its literary and film sequels, and the fan practices associated with this novel. A characteristic feature of the bicentennial cult of Austen is its active self-reflection: Austen fans themselves are often described in sequels and parodies. The figure of an Asten fan, “Janeite,” and his or her ways of interacting with classical texts is the main focus of the article. First, the paper describes the transformation of the Jane Austen cult: from the literary communities of the 19th century, through the consolidation in the literary canon and in the popular culture during the 20th century, and finally, “austenmania,” a boom of popularity from the 1990s. Furthermore, specific subgenres of film adaptations and literary sequels devoted to fans of the writer, are analysed. Special attention is also paid to practices of using accessories thematically based on the novels by Jane Austen. Due to their visibility, these practices have helped create a framework of analysing the literary cult of Jane Austen through the figure of her fan in two emotional modes: nostalgia and irony. For an illustration of nostalgia and irony as key factors of “austenmania,” the article reviews the film Austenland, a screen adaptation of the sequel and a series based on the original script, Lost in Austen. To conclude, the article proposes to consider the interaction of the contemporary reader with the novels of Austen as a never-ending shared re-creating of the imagined literary world, a critical description and self-description of the fans, and a nostalgic dreaming about an idealized historical period of the early 19th century.
After postmodernism’s key theorists abandoned the topic (Fredric Jameson) or even allowed that postmodernism is no longer exists (Linda Hutcheon), various concepts under the umbrella term “post-postmodernism” have begun to emerge since 2000. One of the last intellectual alternatives to post-modernism was the metamodernism proposed by two Europeans, Timotheus Vermeulen and Robin van den Akker. In 2010 they published a kind of manifesto entitled Notes on Metamodernism in which they argued that there had been a pivot away from cynicism and irony toward sincerity and romance in the newly emerging culture. This pivot heralds the arrival of the new era of metаmodernism. The author of the article critically evaluates the manifesto and concludes that the concept of metamodernism does not stand up to scrutiny and has little of substance to offer. The metamodernism manifesto is at best a set of declarations. However, this does not mean that the metamodernists had not intuitively hit upon the key to cultural and social tendencies that are still not completely clear. At the end of 2017 a new collection of articles edited by Vermeulen and van den Akker was published. Even though the authors of the metamodernism concept had almost nothing new to offer and failed to develop their ideas any further, other researchers and thinkers with different theoretical orientations from the original authors have taken up the metamodernism impulse and made it qualitatively more interesting. The metаmodernism project has been developed with greater sophistication by theorists and also through empirical research. Metamodernism has been vindicated by the new life it has been given.