The role of observers’ emotional traits in the emotion recognition from facial expressions has been studied. According to Forgas’ Affect Infusion Model, the role of observers’ emotional traits will differ depending on the task type. More constructive tasks will be influenced by emotional traits to the greater extent. This prediction has been tested in the experiment with two types of tasks. In the more constructive task, participants had to recognize happiness, sadness, fear, and anger naming the emotions. In the less constructive task, participants did the same but chose one of the two emotion terms instead of naming the emotions. Recognition accuracy and sensitivity were related more to the emotional traits when participants performed more constructive tasks. Emotion congruency effect has been found for happiness and sadness. All results were obtained under stimulus presentation duration of 200 ms, which corresponds to the earlier stage of information processing.
Theoretical analysis of views of foreign and domestic philosophers and psychologists, sources from Christian literature to reveal the “conscience” notion has been done. It has been shown that though thousand-year history of active use of the notion in philosophy, scientific and fiction literature its content is still little-studied. The authors understanding of the problem of relation between knowledge of moral norms and conscience; moral behavior and behavior “according to conscience” is presented. Moral qualities as person’s fundamental moral dispositions along with absolute moral values that define conscience action and intraindividual conscience’s structure are marked. Functional manifestations of conscience, its hypothetical mechanisms are described, introduced formal model of conscience open the door to empiric study of “conscience phenomenon” in psychology.
It is the important issue in system psychophysiology to describe the processes of orchestration and development of functional systems. Within the framework of the issue, heart rate variability dynamics was studied in behaviors formed at different stages of the ontogeny (earlier and later). Participants (n = 35 (5 female), age from 23 to 37 (M = 27.78; Me = 28)) had the professional education in fields of physics or mathematics. They had to perform the task of filling in gaps at sentences. There were two groups of sentences: 1) sentences consisted words, which age of acquisition was the period of learning at a university, from professional mathematicians vocabulary; 2) sentences consisted common-used words, which are used by children of pre-school and school ages. Heart rate complexity was measured with Sample Entropy. Comparison of two tasks has shown that heart rate complexity was less during the performance of the behavior formed on earlier stages of individual development (working with sentences with common-used words). In light of the system-evolutionary approach, the results can be explained through dissimilarities of sets of functional systems actualized in different behaviors. It is important to notice, system temporary dedifferentiation, which was induced by alcohol administration, decreased differences between heart rate complexities in two behaviors. It was concluded, heart rate complexity reflects system characteristics of performed behavior.
Correlation of contribution of socio-demographic (sex, age, education, marital status) and organizational (position, experience) factors to satisfaction with different components of job activity (wages, conditions and job organization, team leadership, job content and achievements) in Russian industrial company is considered. According to the results, organizational factors correlate with job satisfaction to a greater extent than socio-demographic ones, the position of the worker being of special significance. Correlation between age and satisfaction is nonlinear: young specialists and working pensioners are more satisfied; women are more satisfied than men are.
This paper examines intercultural relations of host population (N = 651) and migrants (N = 378) in Moscow. The study examines the relevance of three hypotheses that can be used to understand intercultural relations: the multicultural hypothesis, integration hypothesis and contact hypothesis. Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM), separately for migrants and those in Moscow, and compared the results with each other. The results showed that perceived security, intercultural contacts, acceptance of multicultural ideology, acculturation attitudes and expectations have a significant impact on immigrants’ and Muscovites’ mutual acculturation and attitudes. The authors concluded that efforts to improve intercultural relations between immigrants and the larger society should be directed at enhancing the larger society’s basic sense of security and to developing programs that improve mutual attitudes, intercultural competence and tolerance among both the members of the larger society and among immigrants.
New notion “socio-psychological capital” is proposed and operationalized. From the author’s point of view, socio-psychological capital is a certain psychological relations that are a basis for social capital forming. I. Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior is used as theoretical bases for entrepreneurial behavior study. It is shown that there is an infl uence of some components of socio-psychological capital (institutional trust, social trust and perceived social capital) on socio-cognitive phenomena underlying the intention to open person’s own business. It is stated that socio-psychological capital does not infl uence directly on intention to open one’s own business.
Social capital is shown to be connected not only with macroeconomic indicators at societal level but with peoples economic behavior (n = 634). Relationships of social capital and attitude to money are considered. Assumption that social capital can fulfi ll the regulative function in peoples attitude to material resources which can manifest itself at individual level in peculiarities of attitude to money is expressed. As far as different forms of capital can convert into each other, persons high social capital must be joined with his lesser money - orientation. Social capital at the individual level has a negative infl uence on intensity of the following monetary attitudes (according to A. Furnham): Retention, Power, Inadequacy, Security.
The article describes the development and validation of a new measure called the Self-Possession Scale. The evidence for the factor structure and psychometric properties of the test is presented in the three series of studies with data from a sample of 678 subjects (325 males and 353 females) aged 16–68 (M = 30.32, SD = 10.86). Cluster, exploratory, and confirmatory factor analysis verified the three-factor solution: 1) personal self-possession (i.e., the ability to maintain moderation and composure in circumstances of everyday life); 2) eventual self-possession (i.e., the ability to maintain fortitude in difficult or unpredictable life situations); 3) existential self-possession (i.e., the ability to achieve harmony between oneself and the outside world in all circumstances). It was shown that the Self-Possession Scale shows good discriminatory power, internal reliability and test-retest reliability, and demonstrates the predicted correlations with total scores on questionnaire “Style of Behavior Self-Regulation” by V.I. Morosanova, Self-Determination Scale by K. Sheldon and E. Deci, Self-Monitoring Scale by M. Snyder, Self-Control Scale by J. Tangney, R. Baumeister and A. Boone, Self-Control Subscale from the questionnaire of volitional self-control by A.G. Zverkov and E.V. Eydman. We described the procedure of introducing the filler items for the correction of the social desirability, previously measured Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding by D. Paulhus. The results provide support for the Self-Possession Scale as a valid and reliable scale for measuring selfpossession, which can be used in scientific and practical purposes, including the situations with high social desirability (e.g., when applying for a job, in the competitive selection, etc.).