The connection of L.I. Antsyferova’s ideas of the personal development and counseling psychology is traced. The main principles of applied personality psychology are described (system, determinism, development, and complementarity). Synergetic and compensatory interaction between the person and situation is considered. Everyday life psychology as a theoretical base of counseling is analyzed. The interrelation of counseling and natural psychotherapy is discussed. Deficient and self-actualization models of psychotherapy are identified. The empirical data about natural techniques of client’s self-help in cases of deficient and self-actualization complaints are shown. It is concluded that everyday life is a significant resource of personal development.
Yu. Kuhl’s action control conception is analyzed. In contrast to traditional notions according to which orientation to action/state in failure, planning and realization are examined in its structure, refl exive orientation associated with conscious choice of action’s delay for the purpose of analyzing what is happening and/or coping with one’s own state is considered. In two experiments (N1 = 286, N2 = 280) three factor structure of action control (orientation to action, state and refl exive orientation) in planning and failure has been confi rmed. Refl exive orientaion scale is reliable enough and correlates with existing methods of refl exivity diagnostics and is the best predictor for planning and programming under activity”s selfregulation in comparison with orientation to activity and state.
The role of observers’ emotional traits in the emotion recognition from facial expressions has been studied. According to Forgas’ Affect Infusion Model, the role of observers’ emotional traits will differ depending on the task type. More constructive tasks will be influenced by emotional traits to the greater extent. This prediction has been tested in the experiment with two types of tasks. In the more constructive task, participants had to recognize happiness, sadness, fear, and anger naming the emotions. In the less constructive task, participants did the same but chose one of the two emotion terms instead of naming the emotions. Recognition accuracy and sensitivity were related more to the emotional traits when participants performed more constructive tasks. Emotion congruency effect has been found for happiness and sadness. All results were obtained under stimulus presentation duration of 200 ms, which corresponds to the earlier stage of information processing.
Theoretical analysis of views of foreign and domestic philosophers and psychologists, sources from Christian literature to reveal the “conscience” notion has been done. It has been shown that though thousand-year history of active use of the notion in philosophy, scientific and fiction literature its content is still little-studied. The authors understanding of the problem of relation between knowledge of moral norms and conscience; moral behavior and behavior “according to conscience” is presented. Moral qualities as person’s fundamental moral dispositions along with absolute moral values that define conscience action and intraindividual conscience’s structure are marked. Functional manifestations of conscience, its hypothetical mechanisms are described, introduced formal model of conscience open the door to empiric study of “conscience phenomenon” in psychology.
It is the important issue in system psychophysiology to describe the processes of orchestration and development of functional systems. Within the framework of the issue, heart rate variability dynamics was studied in behaviors formed at different stages of the ontogeny (earlier and later). Participants (n = 35 (5 female), age from 23 to 37 (M = 27.78; Me = 28)) had the professional education in fields of physics or mathematics. They had to perform the task of filling in gaps at sentences. There were two groups of sentences: 1) sentences consisted words, which age of acquisition was the period of learning at a university, from professional mathematicians vocabulary; 2) sentences consisted common-used words, which are used by children of pre-school and school ages. Heart rate complexity was measured with Sample Entropy. Comparison of two tasks has shown that heart rate complexity was less during the performance of the behavior formed on earlier stages of individual development (working with sentences with common-used words). In light of the system-evolutionary approach, the results can be explained through dissimilarities of sets of functional systems actualized in different behaviors. It is important to notice, system temporary dedifferentiation, which was induced by alcohol administration, decreased differences between heart rate complexities in two behaviors. It was concluded, heart rate complexity reflects system characteristics of performed behavior.
Correlation of contribution of socio-demographic (sex, age, education, marital status) and organizational (position, experience) factors to satisfaction with different components of job activity (wages, conditions and job organization, team leadership, job content and achievements) in Russian industrial company is considered. According to the results, organizational factors correlate with job satisfaction to a greater extent than socio-demographic ones, the position of the worker being of special significance. Correlation between age and satisfaction is nonlinear: young specialists and working pensioners are more satisfied; women are more satisfied than men are.