The article shows that the model of exogenous modernization, which Russia chose after 1855, was untenable because it was based on preserving the estate system, isolating the peasantry from civil rights, and also on the anti-capitalist and anti-bourgeois sentiments of the government as a whole of society. A positive turn in the development of the country came only thanks to the reforms of S.Yu. Witte and P.A. Stolypin, deliberately held contrary to the opinion of most of the elites.
This article analyze Vasily Maklkov and Mark Aldanov attitudes towards collaboration in France and Italy during World War II period. The article introduce Maklakov and Aldanov correspondence of 1948 on this issue.
Рецензия на книги Sarah Badcock. Politics and the People in Revolutionary Russia: A Provincial History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007) и Aaron B. Retish. Russia’s Peasants in Revolution and Civil War: Citizenship, Identity, and the Creation of the Soviet State, 1914-1922 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)
Immediately after the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Stalinist state started a “purge” of “suspicious elements” in the country. The campaign resembled the Great Terror in several parameters: the arrests took place throughout the country, certain categories of the population were repressed. Religious believers were among the repressed. Their persecution was extremely brutal. The courts of general jurisdiction were one of the instruments of repressions. The article is based on their materials. The war became an incentive for a terror campaign, but it had also set the latter’s limits. It was impossible to simultaneously fight with an external opponent and to conduct a large-scale campaign against "internal enemies". The scale of repression against believers, as well as the degree of its brutality, significantly decreased during the war, but the persecution never fully ceased.