The article is about a new edited volume on medieval Novgorod, its history and culture, published in France. It alыo touches upon issues approached in this book.
The article shows that the model of exogenous modernization, which Russia chose after 1855, was untenable because it was based on preserving the estate system, isolating the peasantry from civil rights, and also on the anti-capitalist and anti-bourgeois sentiments of the government as a whole of society. A positive turn in the development of the country came only thanks to the reforms of S.Yu. Witte and P.A. Stolypin, deliberately held contrary to the opinion of most of the elites.
The article recreates the history of the Commission on trips abroad of the CPSU (b) / CPSU on the basis of archival materials of RGANI. This Commission, which existed in 1924-1991, was an integral part of the General system of party control over the population in the USSR. Its functions in the most General form were to determine the political reliability of the candidate for a foreign trip and to identify the practical feasibility of this trip. But the expanding contacts with the Western world and the realities of "developed socialism", which forced the population to think about the role of the party in their lives, gradually nullified attempts to control the behavior of the Soviet people through permissive and prohibitive practices.
This article attempts to fit Lenin's views into the context of party building at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, which was carried out in the various segments of the Russian political movement. The author proves that Lenin's ideas about forms of political participation, party organization and tactics became a response to the challenges of the time, to which all political forces responded in one way or another. Lenin offered one of the options for the answer, which partly coincided with what his opponents were insisting. Moreover, the political movement of that time was relatively poorly differentiated. The boundaries that separated one current from another were quite conditional. In all such associations, the key role was played by the intelligentsia, whose membership implied following a certain model of political behavior. This also applied to the Bolsheviks, whose party model was a special case of all-Russian practice.
The author of the article reconsiders the political history of Galician–Volhynian Rus’ in 1240-1340 with emphasis on its relations to the Mongol Empire and the Golden Horde. He suggests new interpretations to a number of the Galician–Volhynian Chronicle’s entries and several Latin documents. A special attention is given to the controversial issues of the modern studies on the field. The author concludes that the Principality of Galicia–Volhynia under the rule of Daniel of Galicia and his descendants was subjected to the Mongols/Tatars under the same conditions as the North-Eastern Rus’ian lands.