The 17–18th centuries in Korea are characterized by the sharp increase in the number of works devoted to geography and history. The reason was the emergence of new knowledge about the world, coming to the Korean peninsula through regular contacts with the Manchu empire of Qing. It is worth mentioning that the nature of these works was diametrically opposed: on the one hand, in the higher aristocratic Confucian circles, the mythical “All Under Heavens Map”s called cheonhado, appealing to ancient history, were popular; on the other hand, a group of sirhak scholars who fought for the “real knowledge”, tried to find a compromise between the new methods of studying space and the traditional sinocentric worldview.
This article focuses on one of the geographical writings of the second half of the 18th century the “Description of the Mountains” (Sangyeongpyo) of the court official-censor Shin Gyeongjun 申景濬 (1712-1781). This work is the first proto-scientific attempt to classify all the Korean mountains according to their location and size. The work continues the study of the so-called “The Great Paektu Trunk" of the Baektu-taegan, or the Great Trunk, started earlier by the scholars of the second half of the 18th century. – Yi Chung-hwan 李重煥 (1690-1756?) and Yi Ik 李瀷 (1681-1763).
The article is aimed to reconstruct the biography of Shin Gyeongjun – and for the first time in Russian Korean Studies the research is based on the royal chronicles “Joseon Wangjo Sillok” 朝鮮王朝實錄; and to analyze the content of the “Description of the Mountains” – this is also done for the first time in Russian Korean Studies.
According to Shin Gyeongjun, the Korean mountain range system should be correctly explained through the fifteen different mountain ranges. He believed it is possible to distinguish one “huge trunk” daegan (大幹), one “main trunk” jeonggan (正幹) and thirteen “main veins” jeongmaek (正脈). Shin Gyeongjun was the first state council who presented the whole description of the Korean mountain ranges, and thus he influenced the development of Korean geography and cartography.
Innovative cooperation is an important component of mutually beneficial bilateral cooperation. Such interaction between the two major global players such as Russia and China requires a well-balanced human development policy. The article reveals the complexity of the evolution of human capital in RF and China. Based on the comparison of the socio-economic indicators and data from the UN Human Development Report, the author considers strengths and weaknesses of existing models of human development. The article shows the dominance of Russian Federation in economic and social indicators, such as per capita GDP, disposable income, inequality index, gender gap, education level. While important features of the modern China progress are making this country more capable in accumulating and making proper use of human potential. The main advantages of development of PRC are rapid growth of population incomes, thoughtful elimination of poverty and illiteracy, growth of the education level and life expectancy. The author highlights weaknesses in the development of partner countries: population decline, age and gender imbalances, significant gap in living standards, increasing burden on the healthcare system, drop in real incomes and insufficient funding for education and research. According to the human development index, the gap between Russia and China in the world ranking at this stage is 34 positions. However, the dynamics of changes in living standards over the past 30 years indicates a short time left until Russia remains a leader. Building a strategic long-term partnership with China requires from Russia more balanced policy in use of human capital.
The risks of sociopolitical instability emergence are analyzed for three East African countries (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) which are currently trying to escape from the Malthusian trap. A cognitive model of the emergence of such risks is presented. Particular attention is given to demographic indicators and urbanization processes, especially to the "youth bulge" and rapid growth of urban population forecasted by the UN. Various development scanerios are viewed for these countires for the coming decades. Some policy advice is given in terms of avoiding or mitigating the risks f sociopolitical destabilization.
The Arab countries tourist business is presented in the article from the point of view of competitive advantages selection and evaluation. Among advantages there are the presence of the seacoast or bay, favorable climatic conditions, unique natural resources, cultural and historical monuments, developed tourist infrastructure, a variety of tourist high level services, discounts and others. Competitive advantages can be classified as natural, economic, infrastructural and national factors and, in turn, they have an impact on the development of countries through the promotion of entrepreneurship, job creation, the maintenance of law, order and security, the preservation of cultural heritage and environment protection. The work outlines the dynamics of tourism industry indicators development in the region, assesses the tourism and hotel market attractiveness in terms of services quality, net cost, marketing and transaction costs, market share and brand awareness. It is determined that the tourism market of such countries as the UAE, Morocco, Bahrain, Qatar, Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan, can be considered as more attractive. There is a high correlation between the level of GDP and tourism competitiveness in the country. The weight of tourism in the economy is increasing in 8 countries of the region.It is shown that the key factors in the formation of tourism business competitive advantages are political stability and security guarantees. The events of the "Arab spring" extremely adversely affected the industry, even in those countries where there were no uprisings and civil unrest. The solution of the problem of attracting tourists to the Arab countries can be seen as application of strategies for creating and developing competitive advantages: focusing on the source of negative events, the strategy of target audience, "messages" and the transformation of liabilities into assets.
The classic Mamluk era (mid‑13th – early 16th century) was one of the brightest in the history of Egypt, as well as of the entire Middle East. The reign of the sultan Barquq marked the beginning of what is known as the Burji, or Circassian, period (1382–1517). The current paper regards the impact of the sultan Barquq’s policy concerning the Karamanids, on the relationships between the Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire with the neighboring regions. Furthermore, the fitnah concept holds a prominent place in the Islamic political doctrine engaging with other key concepts such as jihad and thaura (revolution). The authors trace the genesis of the fitnah concept in the Middle East history during the seventh – fourteenth centuries. Analysis of rare epistolary artifacts of the Mamluk era forms novelty value of the research. The main issue brought by the authors is to differentiate the connotations of the fitnah concept as a historical and political phenomenon from its religious and legal notion.
Chinese painting at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries is distinguished by a historically unprecedented variety of techniques, artistic styles and genres. The emergence of oil painting in China broke the monopoly of traditional water-based glue painting, but not its leadership based on synthesis with calligraphy. The article describes the current stage of development of realistic oil painting in China. The works of artists Luo Zhongli (born in 1948) and Ai Xuan (born in 1947) were selected for analysis. Using examples of their paintings, which have become widely known in China, the process of sinization of Western aesthetics of oil painting is studied and the significance of Tibetan themes in modern Chinese painting is considered. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that Western art criticism does not pay due attention to Chinese oil painting artists, as a result of which Western viewers and collectors are poorly prepared for Chinese auctions and exhibitions. The article comprehensively uses art history description, philosophical and aesthetic analysis, cultural methodology and sociological approach.
At the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, in Chinese oil painting, the pathos of the revolutionary style is replaced by the direction of "village realism painting", in which the so-called "Tibetan group" is formed. The theme of the life of national minorities is framed in a separate genre, but it is the works of Tibetan themes that are the most numerous and are successful at competitions and exhibitions. Luo Zhongli's painting style evolved from realism to neo-expressionism. The Tibetan theme interested the artist at the early realistic stage of his work. The ideological basis of his realistic style in Tibetan subjects was the traditional ideal of "archaic simplicity" (gu pu). Later, Luo Zhongli abandons the Western style of writing, and applies the Chinese technique of linear painting baimiao and strokes-cun in oil painting. Ai Xuan's style, on the contrary, is consistently realistic in combination with techniques of lyrical expressionism. Ai Xuan brings the texture of oil painting closer to the effects of traditional water-glue painting by increasing the transparency of the layers of oil painting.
Cultural values, traditions, ideas about male and female social roles on the African continent were passed on to children from generation to generation in the processes of socialization and enculturation. In a traditional patriarchal society, the roles of men and women were strictly divided: it was common for men to assume the responsibilities of the breadwinner and be responsible for social interrelations, while women were engaged in housekeeping and offspring.
The mechanisms for transferring this social model from parents to children were primarily initiation rites, including naming, cutting, or first hair cutting. In the process of passing the rites, the young representatives of the people got an idea of their future and the opportunity to join all aspects of the life of adult men or women. Deterministic scenarios were distributed depending on the biological sex. For example, in agricultural societies, boys helped fathers with field work from an early age. And girls from about the age of six were already responsible for having water in the house and helping their mother in cooking.
Since colonial times, the “shaking” of traditional gender roles, stereotypes and social attitudes in African cultures began. The “white man” brought political, socio-economic and religious changes to the African continent. Models of family relations, first of all, the power of fathers and husbands, began to undergo "erosion" [Rybalkina, 2011]. The scale of labor migration has increased, which also has a significant impact on family and marriage relations.
The emergence of schools and churches is increasingly reducing the role of traditional mechanisms of socialization of children. On the one hand, the education system assumes some of the functions that the family had previously performed. On the other hand, the presence of education provides an alternative opportunity to get away from traditionalism and enter the world of "alluring lights of the city." Educated African women leave for the cities and grow cold in relation to the ritual life of their native settlement. Religious changes, the spread of Christianity and Islam also created the prerequisites for ousting traditional beliefs or the gradual abandonment of traditional Africans from traditional rites.
Traditional social attitudes still persist and continue to be orally transmitted from generation to generation, mainly in the villages. The younger generation continues to follow the tradition to a certain age, as it is increasingly being brought up not by parents, but by even older relatives.
In this work, we observe how changes in initiation rites reflect the spread of new socialization practices in society as a result of cultural transformations in Africa in the colonial and post-colonial periods. We described the ritual of the Ganda people and identified the main reasons for the transformation of their external (ritual) and substantive (functional) sides.
Every day there appear articles and reports on Islamic terrorism, which has indeed become a daily reality. Countless books and dissertations attempt to analyze the activities of Islamic terrorists. Meanwhile, Christian terrorist groups operating in countries and regions all around the world receive much less attention, although they are no less dangerous. In the authors' view, "Christian terrorism" can be defined as extremist activities characterized by a high level of violence, which, according to terrorists, is necessary for achieving the religious or, rather, pseudo-religious goals of "purifying" the faith itself and its adherents from all sorts of "filth", fighting "evil", and building the "Kingdom of God" – a society of "general prosperity". The article examines the causes, preconditions for the emergence, and activities of the Lord's Resistance Army, analyzes the religious views of its leader Joseph Kony, as well as external and internal factors that have influenced the tactics and strategy of the organization. It also assesses the religious nature of the movement and forecasts the spread of Christian extremism on the African continent.
The article examines the fatwas and rulings of several Islamic institutions in the Arab world and European countries. The dramatic changes in the lifestyle of people that were caused by the coronavirus (social distancing, limitation of contacts, disruption of the usual way of life, etc.), inevitably had to be reflected in such sources. The main research question is related to how the positions of key Islamic legal institutions differ (if they differ) regarding the situation with the coronavirus and whether there is a dependence of the positions of these institutions on their location. In this material, a review of some of the sources was made, while manual content analysis was applied to the other part of the sources. We also intended to find out which topics worried Muslim scholars most of all, as well as in which way - religious or secular - they most often covered their positions on everything related to the coronavirus. In the course of the study, lexical analysis of sources was also carried out: it was interesting for us to see how often specific legal vocabulary was encountered in the sources we analyzed - a sure sign that the text transmitted with its use has legal authority in the Muslim world.
This article is devoted to mutual help practices, which are quite common in the largest economic center of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. The main aim is to discover the basis of mutual trust of the members of such communities to each other, to leaders of their organizations and to such institutions as a whole. The article is based on field research, which took place in September 2013 and in the end of September – beginning of October 2015 mainly in two districts of Dar es Salaam - Gongo la Mboto and Mbagala under the Russian Foundation for Humanities grant №13-31-01284. Both of these areas are uswahilini (Swahili. - "Quarter for the Africans"), meaning traditional African quarters and they are often described as informal settlements. In uswahilini districts, mutual help practices are especially popular due to the lack of sufficient support of the citizens from the state, difficult living conditions, the lack of "official" work etc. in the course of interviews we noticed that almost all our respondents mentioned that they had heard that in some group some of its members has stolen the whole mutual aid fund. None of them could tell us any specific details, however it was clear that such incidents happen sometimes and people are aware of that. Thus, a question arose: what do members of such groups do to make themselves safe from swindle, stealing and failures to return loans? What makes people trust each other in such communities?
The article considers the value orientations of the Afrasian zone of instability on the basis of two gender dimensions: dimension of gender power and economic gender dimension. The authors include in the Afrasian zone of instability the Middle East (including North Africa) all the Big Middle East (including Central Asia and Pakistan), as well as the Sahel countries. The analysis allows us to conclude that, according to some of the country's values, the Afrazi zone forms a fairly compact cluster, which differs markedly both from the countries of Africa south of the Sahel and from the Eastern Islamic countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia and Malaysia). The differences of the countries of the Afrasian zone from Africa south of the Sahel are especially pronounced in these dimensions. The Eastern Islamic countries differ quite strongly from the countries of the Afrasian zone in the political gender space, but their differences are not so pronounced in the economic gender space, although these differences, however, are statistically significant. This fact correlates well with the fact that the countries of Africa south of the Sahel are characterized by high female labor force participation rates, which radically differs them from the countries of the Afrasian zone, for the majority of which extremely low female labor force participation rates are rather typical. At the same time, the Eastern Islamic countries (which are characterized by female labor force participation rates that are close to the world average) do not differ so much from the countries of the Afrasian zone in the economic geneder value dimension (although these differences are still statistically significant).