The article presents the main ideas of the third of ten “Lectures on Political Right” read by the outstanding Spanish political conservative philosopher of the XIX century Juan Donoso Cortés in the Madrid “Ateneo” in 1836-1837. During the lecture, Donoso analyses the political philosophy of Plato and L. G. A. de Bonald, proving that both philosophers, with all their differences, created in general the similar “theory of despotism”. Criticising Plato and Bonald from a liberal position, Donoso opposes Enlightenment concept of freedom to their understanding of power as being despotic, and the liberal-bourgeois notion of the individual as reasonable man — to their knowledge of the state as the absolute one. The lecture is analysed in the broad context of the political struggle between the liberal-conservative wing of the moderados party and its opponents on the left (progressists) and on the right (the Carlists). The author proves that some of the opinions expressed by Donoso, who in the second half of the 1830s was at the liberal-conservative stage of his ideological evolution, later will change. In particular, his attitude towards Plato and L. G. A de Bonald will become positive, and a shift in emphasis will be made in the interpretation of G. Vico’s works. Meanwhile, the others (his driven by geopolitical reasons hostility to Russia, his desire to put up the “Anglo-Saxon race” against it, etc.), on the contrary, will only get further development. As a result, the Donoso’s lecture acquires the unique conceptual and theoretical sounding, thereby demonstrating that the political philosophy of Spanish liberal conservatism is an integral part of the all-European one.
Boris Yudin's articles are a kind of symptom of the state of Russian intellectual culture. Published posthumously under a single cover, they present to the reader a systematic thinker who worked in Russian with relevant topics, among which are bioethics, transhumanism, the boundaries of the human and non-human in culture and the search for a new status of philosophical reflection within this framework. For ideas and methodologies in these areas, we go to the primary sources - the works of Peter Singer, Francis Fukuyama, Nick Bostrom and other authors. At the same time, the work that is being done in parallel by our senior colleagues remains in the background. Even in particular if it is conducted at the world level: that is, unlike “native science”, it requires serious time and intellectual expenses for its study.
The reader is offered a translation of the most famous article of the English mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon Clifford "Ethics of belief", the publication of which at one time had a strong influence on all subsequent studies in epistemology.The article remains relevant to this day.