The state of mind wandering is related to complete or partial detachment of attention from external information. Under this state, attention switches from the ongoing primary task towards unrelated thoughts, fantasies and feelings. Current understanding of the role of cognitive control in the initiation and sustaining the state of mind wandering is ambiguous, and specific mechanisms of deterioration in the performance quality of the ongoing activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the ongoing task performance under the state of mind-wandering, and to find out the main cause of error commission during this state – either a reduction in the motor threshold, or weakening of specific representations involved in the execution of the ongoing task. The current study employed the auditory condensation task; performance accuracy and response times were analyzed. The state of mind-wandering was probed by way of inquiry interrupting the experiment. During the state of mind wandering compared to the on-task state, task performance accuracy decreased, and pre-error speeding as well error slowing effects were abolished. The current findings evidence that under the state of mind-wandering the level of cognitive control involved in the ongoing external task performance decreased. The pattern of behavioral measures obtained hints that the basic mechanism of performance deterioration is related to the weakening of specific representations involved in task performance rather than to a drop in the motor threshold.
Psychological research shows that thoughts of death provoke fear in people. According to terror management theory, to master the fear they use psychological defense – they seek to prove the righteousness of their worldviews. Thanks to that the mortality salience influences the atti- tudes toward political leaders. In this study the influence of death thoughts on thenotions of ideal political leader is viewed. The participants of the study (N=153) were divided into one experimental and two control groups. The experimental group watched the video recording of aftermaths of terroristic attacks (mortality salience), the first control group watched the video about the process of dental care in the dentist cabinet (pain salience) and the second control group watched the advertisement of soviet cars (neutral subject). After that all respondents filled in the questionnaire for measuring the notions of ideal politician. It included eight 5-point bipo- lar scales, which determined the parameters of the «care» about followers and «control» for them. The results of the study showed that, in general, respondents perceived the ideal political leader as prone to the «care» and «control». Mortality salience influenced the evaluation of ideal politician on the parameter of «care»: the participants, who watched the video recording of after- maths of terroristic attacks, evaluated ideal leader as less solicitous than people from control groups. At the same time, mortality salience did not influence the estimation of ideal politician on the parameter of «control».
Previous works show that mood congruence effect or trait congruence effect can be achieved (Chepenik et al., 2007; Rusting, 1998). The present study explores the effect of emotional state and dispositional joy on effectiveness of emotion recognition from facial expression. The experimental study was conducted in two groups of subjects. The general sample consisted of 39 participants. Participants’ emotional state was measured with the self-report questionnaire PANAS. The participants’ current mood was manipulated with the emotion induction procedure, which involved screening video with “joyful” or “neutral” emotional coloring. To measure the speed of emotional information processing a computer technique was used, in which a participant performed the task on emotion recognition from facial expression. The hypothesis was tested whether there is an effect of congruency in positive information processing. It was supposed that positive emotional state and dispositional joy heighten the speed of positive information processing and don’t influence processing of the stimuli with negative emotional coloring. Testing of the emotion induction procedure proved it to be partially successful. Congruency effect for dispositional joy was achieved: we found an interrelation of higher manifestation of this trait with higher speed in joy recognition from facial expressions. The influence of positive emotional state was manifested in lower speed in recognition of joy. In sum, the results show that the congruency effect is expressed differently for trait and emotional state. Overall, the results of the conducted study provide information on the mechanisms of emotion recognition.
The paper focuses on the way one’s own emotional state influences the recognition of other people’s emotions. Existing research indicates the effect of congruence between the emotions experienced at the moment and the evaluations of emotional stimuli. Our experimental study tested the hypotheses of the influence of emotional states on two aspects of emotion recognition, accuracy and sensitivity. We hypothesized that emotional state of the observer reduces the accuracy and increases the sensitivity. The study involved 69 participants divided into three groups. The baseline emotional state was assessed using a self-report measure. We used video clips with neutral, positive, and negative emotional content to induce different emotional states in each group. The accuracy and sensitivity of emotion recognition were measured using a test based on video samples of people's behavior in different situations. The results showed that the emotional state in the control group was rather «tense» and different from neutral. However, our hypotheses were not supported: the groups with different induced emotional states did not exhibit any significant differences in the accuracy of emotion recognition. The control group demonstrated higher sensitivity. These preliminary results are discussed in the context of the issues of emotion recognition research (such as emotion induction, assessment of emotions, differentiation of emotional states and traits).
The article is dedicated to the review and analysis of the key publications on the “Possible self” theory. The theoretical representations developed within this approach are provided in the text. The research potential of the approach is elaborated, and ways of its practical application are represented. Hazel Markus, the author of the term "possible self", adds a new component to the general model ofself-concept for an explanation of how concepts of potency influence self-concept as a whole. Possible self is the part of self-concept that appeals to the sphere of future and potency, and serves as a cognitive expression of expectations, goals, fears, hopes and aspirations of the subject, as well as the link between cognitive appraisal of self and motivation. The current estimation of the self, as H. Markus believes, considers possible selves, those that the person would like to become, selves that he avoids, and even selves that will never become real. At the same time this mechanism is not reduced only to understanding of the goal or appraisal of the possible future, but surely includes experience of a potential situation from within and appraisal of opportunities to act. In such form it becomes the important instrument of the personality development and personality resource of self-regulation and coping with difficulties. The role and the place of this approach in the general theory of self-concept were analyzed. The concepts "self-schema" and "working self-concept" were defined. Some opportunities of application of this approach in psychotherapy are revealed. Results of some empirical studies provided within this approach are given. It is shown that possible self construct demonstrates high heuristic potential and demonstrates ample opportunities of application in psychological practice.
The paper discusses the problem of personality development in its reflexive aspect and realization of its capacities within relationship with another person. Methodological bases of the study are psychology of personality, ontology and philosophy of life, existential philosophy; philosophy of language, phenomenology. Being a part of "general personology", a new area of psychological science, the study uses the methods of hermeneutics, reflection, and theoretical modelling in order to extract and generalize the existing knowledge about the capacities of the I. Based on the ideas of M. Heidegger, J.-P. Sartre, and P. Ricoeur, the author develops a hermeneutic model of the multidimensional capacities of the I that are revealed within relationship with the Other. The model describes the genesis of these capacities and of awareness, of the I as a source of reflective mediation, and the forms these capacities take in the relationships of personality. It summarizes the types and dynamics of the capacities of the I in the dimensions of “between I and the Other”, “I-in-the-Others”, “the-Other-in-me”. The reflexive model of the capacities of the I can be used within practices of dialogical self-experience and self-development using retrospective analysis of oneself and one's past expressions, as well as a practice of development of relationship with the Other. The vocal dialogue between the I and the Other is viewed within the life context of each of its participants, which reveals its personological nuances not represented in other human sciences.
Justice is the most important social value involved in the distribution of diverse resources, so society is interested in strengthening it. At the same time, social interests are always associated with the interests of the individual. Justice sensitivity is a personal disposition that manifests itself in an emotional response to injustice, awareness of this construct and readiness for action to restore justice. This article explores how justice sensitivity is related to indicators of positive functioning: emotional state, self-esteem and personal resilience. It is shown that sensitivity to justice is positively associated with depressive symptoms, while its contribution to the estimation of subjective well-being is rather weak. It was found that this relationship is mediated by the variables of self-esteem and personal resilience. It is also demonstrated that the quality of this connection varies depending on the position of the subject in the hypothetical situation of violation of justice (victim, observer, beneficiary or perpetrator). The most powerful contribution to the current psychological state is justice sensitivity from the victim perspective. This contribution is partly mediated by the negative relationship between justice sensitivity and self-esteem and resilience. The study also discusses the gender specificity of the relationship between justice sensitivity and indicators of well-being; in general, it is confirmed that, for a female sample compared to a male sample, justice sensitivity is a stronger predictor of subjective well-being.
While looking at multiple objects, observers are able to extract summary statistics of the set of these objects. At the same time, they still perceive individual items, rather than an abstract statistical feature of the whole set. Our study was aimed at investigating the way perception of an individual object is altered by the ensemble of surrounding objects under focused and distributed attention settings. Observers were presented with sets of 1 to 16 circles of different sizes and were subsequently asked to determine the size of a target circle using a two-alternative forced choice procedure. The target location was either pre-cued, resulting in attention focus on a particular item, or post-cued, resulting in the distribution of attention across the entire set. We found a strong effect of the context on the individual target size estimation under both focused and distributed attention settings. The effect was stronger in distributed attention condition. Observers tended to «compress» the size of the largest items in ensembles, and this effect was stronger under the distributed attention setting. We explain this effect by the mechanism of feature unification that increases object similarity and facilitates holistic perception of the ensemble. Unification is weaker under focused attention, which permits better processing of individual objects.
The problem of the study is link between entitativity and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The purpose of the paper is to broad the domain of person’s psychological attachment to the organization from widely used constructs of organizational commitment and identification to perceived integrity versus entitativity. In organization settings there are two groups (or foci), which form strong person’s attachments: working group and the organization as a whole. These groups also called foci of organizational identification. Entitativity and organizational identification were measured with both foci. «The Group Entitativity Measurer» (GEM) was used to measure both foci of entitativity. Organization identification with work group was measured with A Hierarchical (Multicomponent) Model of In-Group Identification adapted to Russian sample. We suppose that strong psychological attachments to group form behavior that beneficial both for the employee and for the organization. This voluntary behavior called Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The sample is a factory workers (N = 124) mostly men from Vologda City of Russia. The perceived entitativity of the work group predicts identification with the organization as a whole (R2=0.07***) and with the working group (R2=0.18***). Significant relationships between OCB and perceived entitativity of two foci were absent. Nevertheless some forms of organizational identification predict OCB. Emotional identification with organization as a whole predicts 3% of OCB variation.