The effect of mild pyrolysis methods (hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction) on the physi-cochemical properties of biocoal was studied. It was established that biocoal obtained by hydrothermal car-bonization has a large specific surface area and exerts an exothermic effect upon decomposition; as comparedwith the samples obtained by torrefaction, it has a more dispersed structure and lower ash content.
Dynamics of a dumb-bell of a variable length in a central field of Newtonian attraction is considered. It is assumed that the body moves in a plane fixed in the absolute space and passing through an attracting center. The law of length's variation providing an existence of stationary configurations is pointed out. For these configurations the dumb-bell forms a constant angle with a local vertical passing through the center of mass of the dumb-bell, which moves in an elliptic orbit similar to the Keplerian. In particular, the mentioned constant angle may be equal to zero. In contrast to previous investigations (Burov and Kosenko, 2011, Burov, 2011) the problem is solved within the exact formulation, without supplementary simplifying assumptions concerning smallness of the dumb-bell in comparison to its distance from the attracting center.
Planning electric-rolling-stock (ERS) maintenance in conditions of limited resources can be carried out based on the following criteria of efficiency of construction of the cycle diagram of the electric rolling stock: meeting the requirements of the railway-traffic safety provided by adjusting the planned movement time of the electric rolling stock for the purpose of not allowing an excessive lapse of time between the maintenance over that permissible and uniformity of maintenance. The solution of the set problem using the graph theory allows obtaining the whole set of the permissible values of maintenance and selecting a value that, on the one hand, corresponds to the planned train time schedule (PTTS) and, on the other hand, differs minimally from the optimal with respect to the selected criterion. This takes a significant amount of time. The problem can be quickly solved using a genetic algorithm. The introduction of a new criterion—total excess time lapse between maintenance works over the permissible interval—allows obtaining the solution with any initial data, which is not always achievable when using the uniform-maintenance criterion. The crossover and permutation algorithm implemented within the genetic algorithm is adapted taking into account considering the peculiarities of the agents engaged in solving the problem that has been set out. We have studied the possibility of using various types of crossover and permutation to construct the cycle diagrams and influence of the parameters of the genetic algorithm on the results. The obtained analytical results are tested for the conditions of the Moscow subway.
The objective of this work is to develop a predictive model for multiphase wellbore flows using the machine learning approach. The artificial neural network is developed and then trained on the dataset generated using the numerical simulator of the full-scale transient wellbore flows. After the training is completed, the neural network is used to predict one of the key parameters of the wellbore flow, namely, the bottomhole pressure. The novelty of this work is related to the application of the neural network to analyze highly transient processes taking place in wellbores. In such processes, most of the parameters of interest can be represented by interdependent time series of variables linked through complex physical phenomena pertinent to the nature of multiphase flows. The proposed neural network with two hidden layers demonstrated the capability to predict the bottomhole pressure within 5% of the normalized root mean squared error for many complex wellbore configurations and flows. It is also shown that relatively higher prediction errors are mainly observed in the case of slug flows where the transient nature of flows is pronounced the most. Finally, the developed model is tested on data affected by noise. It is demonstrated that although the error of prediction slightly increases in contrast to the data without noise, the model captures essential features of the studied transient process. Description of the developed models, analysis of various test use cases, and possible future research directions are outlined.
The urbanisation process growing rapidly during the latest several dozens of years leads to proliferation of infrastructurally complex territories. At the same time, growing interaction of critical infrastructures in combination with the increased frequency and scales of anomalous natural processes result in the growth of the intersystem failures. The intersystem failures can be characterised by cascading processes and disastrous consequences. Such failures are characterised by a high level of social and economic impact affecting various critical infrastructures (energy supply, transport, water supply, telecommunications, finance, etc.), which requires development of the methods and models for assessment of their occurrence and progress. The given paper is devoted to the problems of classification and quantitative assessment of intersystem accident consequences including cascade failure process. Classification of intersystem accident is proposed based on topology of cascade process. Moreover, topology-based and flow-based approaches are used for modelling of intersystem accidents in power and gas supply systems.
The paper is oriented toward the determination of constitutive equation constants by the inverse analysis of plane strain compression test results. The interpretation of such results is complicated by the inhomogeneity of strain rate distribution in the specimen caused by rigid ends, the lateral spreading of a specimen friction and the variation of temperature during the test. The results of plane strain compression tests of AISI-304 stainless steel are presented and significant deviations of temperature are observed at higher strain rates. Finite element simulation was performed to estimate the inhomogeneity of strain rate within the specimen and evaluate the effect of friction on the test results. Constitutive equations of the material were obtained by inverse analysis minimizing the deviations between the measured load values and the ones predicted by numerical simulation.
Experiments with lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) show promising results for the operation of hot plasma facilities and the general improvement of plasma parameters. The design and development of new tokamak plasma facing material (PFM) based on lithium capillary porous systems (CPS) are described in this paper.
The recent progress in the development of limiters with different kinds of CPS is relevant for protection of tokamak PFCs from damage under normal operation, ELMs and disruptions. New PFM eliminates the lithium flux into plasma, its pollution and lithium accumulation.
Here we present an overview of the design and the experimental tests of the liquid lithium limiters. These limiters are based on CPS with hard matrix from stainless steel mesh, molybdenum and tungsten. Different types of limiter have been taken into account: the horizontal and vertical rail type limiters with passive and active cooling for investigation the possibility to provide the closed lithium circulation in tokamak chamber; the ring CPS-based limiter for investigation of lithium behavior in limiter scrape-off layer (SOL).
Here we also present the preliminary results of the application of the cryogenic techniques for lithium removal from the chamber wall after operation in hot plasma.
The main objective of this research is to make a preliminary evaluation of the effective scales of application of nuclear district heating based on units with capacity to 100 MW for supplying energy to cities in the unified power system of Russia. The regions where nuclear district heating is economically efficient but the strong dependence of the results on changes in multiple factors still does not permit significant scales of adoption before 2030 are shown.
This article presents a detailed analysis of the economic efficiency of peat utilization for generating electricity and heat in Russian rural areas and decentralized power consumption areas on the basis of the comparison of power tariffs (prices) and full costs of peat-based electricity and heat production. The research was performed using the model-information complex detailed with respect to municipal areas and major peat deposits that was developed at the Energy Institute, National Research University Higher School of Economics. It is shown that the firing of lignin helium fuel (LHF) granules that are made from peat extracted by the excavating method according to the new, patented technology is considered most efficient. In nongasified areas, the total cost of heat power that is generated in new boiler houses on the basis of LHF granules is often lower than the total heat cost for the gasification of the area and construction of gas boiler houses. In some cases, the heat cost in gasified areas is lower when using a boiler house based on LHF granules than that provided by the conversion of a boiler house to gas fuel. It is also shown that the construction of peat-based heat sources with the overall power of up to 27600 GJ/h that generate a heat power of up to 167.5 million GJ/year will be economically efficient in the coming years, provided that the tariffs for energy sources remain the same. Taking into account the supportive measures that were accepted on a legislative basis in July 2016, sources with the total power of up to 70 GW may be effective for peat-based plants with combined heat-andpower generation. To stimulate the utilization of peat in decentralized power consumption areas and rural areas located in the vicinity of deposits of this fuel type, it is also suggested to make amendments in the normative legal base.
The article examines the background and the preconditions of the Russian railway reform. The reform program is analyzed as well as the practical steps towards its implementation. The reform model is compared with those used in other countries. The main achivements of the reform are discussed (industry capitalization, wagon fleet development, attraction of the private entities) and the main problems are pointed out, principally - lack of actual competition in the industry.
Recognizing the importance of energy for sustainable development, the United Nations General Assembly has designated the year 2012 as the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. Sustainable development concept. Humans living on the Earth shall recognize that nature is their habitat and their only source of existence. Attitudes to the economy and nature are moral issues relevant to the destiny of not only current but future generations. To deal with these issues it is necessary to enhance the spirit of people who choose paths, realize strategies, and participate in economic development and in life itself. In the history of economic development one can distinguish four main periods regarding human attitudes to nature.
We model the evolution of a trans-boundary marine fishery, which is based on the harvesting of a single “highly-migratory” stock and is beginning to be impacted by regional oceanic-climate changes. The fish-stock’s range will be composed of a number of jurisdictional zones: namely, its intersection with the EEZ of each coastal country for which that intersection is non-trivial. There may also be a zone within international waters of the high seas. We also assume that management of the fishery is vested in a Regional Fishery Management Organization, whose members are countries that are “direct stakeholders” in the fishery—being either one of the above countries with jurisdictional authority in a zone or a country that has registered fishing vessels that are licensed to harvest in the fishery, or both.
A brief analysis of the draft document “Russia 2030: Science and Technology Foresight” (of December 19, 2017) is presented. The authors, who are leading researchers at the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, reveal discrepancies between a series of provisions in the document and the current level of Russia’s economic development, primarily in science and technology. The document provides virtually no economic rationale or analysis of what causes the loss of science and technology potential in Russia. The attempt to foresee the technological development of individual Russian regions is unsuccessful. The general conclusion is that the foresight document does not provide a single platform for the development and implementation of strategic planning documents in the field of science and technology.
Purpose – The purpose of the study is to present and critically assess the outcomes of the Foresight study of the Russian energy sector, undertaken in 2014 in the course of a large-scale national Foresight exercise – ‘Science and Technology (S&T) Foresight 2030’.
Design/methodology/approach - Methods applied in the Foresight study include literature review, statistical, bibliometric and patent analysis, a variety of expert methods, SWOT-analysis, market analysis and policy analysis. In this paper the author performs an ex-post analysis of the study.
Findings - As a result of the study, threats, opportunities, prospective innovative markets for products and services were identified for Russia. Russia's innovative technologies and products were assessed with benchmarking against global leaders. The study’s methodology and outcomes are critically reviewed and recommendations for their refinement are made.
Originality/value - This paper offers a valuable insight in the future of energy research and technologies in Russia. It is a comprehensive study that covers all energy aspects from extraction of hydrocarbon to fuel cells and nuclear energy. An ex-post assessment of the study is made with implications for the suture research.
Diversification of energy sources in the road transport sector is becoming a global trend with the emergence of economically and technologically viable alternative fuels, such as electricity, biofuels, compressed natural gas, and others. With the transport sector generating over 50% of global oil demand, this trend obviously holds great significance. The Russian Federation, while being one of the world's major oil producers as well as energy consumers, is falling behind on this trend. However, the prospects for change are quite tangible. The article presents a long term outlook for changes in the Russian road transportation sector's fuel mix. The calculations demonstrate that switching to natural gas and electricity will reduce the share of petroleum products from 95% in 2015 to 74–86% by 2040. Nevertheless, the extent of support by the Russian Government for the infrastructural development will be the key factor to determine the end result. The incentives for natural gas and electric vehicles will also play a large role. The issue of fuel mix diversification will have to be resolved against the background of a 75% increase in the sector's energy consumption, expected in the next 20 yr. Petrol will remain a key fuel for transportation but its share will decrease from 59 to 40-47%, while the share of diesel will remain at 34-39%.
Sectoral foresight activities often identify technological opportunities but leave the question open who will pursue them. Here, entrepreneurial activities have become increasingly important for the introduction and commercialization of new technological solutions. The same is true for Russia’s oil and gas industry, which requires a major technological upscaling to stay competitive. Promising start-ups though face often high barriers and fail to commercialize superior technological solutions.
This paper discusses the experiences of a Russian oilfield service start-up in commercializing a self-developed technology for increasing the productivity of oil wells.
The start-up faced conservatism from corporate decision makers, declining oil prices and suboptimal protection of intellectual property rights. The company overcame most barriers through moving into other markets outside of Russia, as closing a deal with customers in the USA and Canada went much faster than the extended business cycles of national oil companies.
This paper connects sectoral foresight activities to the real-life experience of a start-up. The findings suggest that entry barriers need to be included in the planning process to really pave the way for a greater impact.
The article is devoted to the use of renewable energy sources and the assessment of the feasibility of their use in the climatic conditions of the Western Urals. A simulation model that calculates the efficiency of a combined power installations (CPI) was (RES) developed. The CPI consists of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) and the vacuum solar collector (VCS) and is based on the research model. This model allows solving a wide range of problems in the field of energy and resource efficiency, and can be applied to other objects using RES. Based on the research recommendations for optimizing the management and the application of CPI were given. The optimization system will give a positive effect in the energy and resource consumption of low-rise residential buildings projects.
Numerical and physical simulation on model samples can provide data for various aspects of metal forming, without resorting to time-consuming and costly full-scale tests. This paper presents examples of modeling of the deformation of a slab with a liquid core. The use of soft reduction can enhance the homogeneity of the structure, which improves the quality of cast billets. Mathematical modeling is described here where the fluid layer is taken into account by the influence of boundary conditions in the crust in the form of ferrostatic pressure, which allows calculation of the intensity of deformation, total deformation and strain. It also provides a novel method for studying the process of soft reduction. It is based on a physical model of the slab consisting of a closed solid shell made of a calibrated lead shot and the Wood's alloy. To simulate the liquid molten metal, the interior of the shell is filled with gelatin. This approach can be applied to further studies on deformation processes and the penetration of deformation into complex metallic systems.
This article examines the industrial wastes and environmental effects of Soviet technological development through the history of the Karelian Isthmus, a border territory that had previously been Finnish. Focusing primarily on the history of two large enterprises – the Svetogorskii (former Enso) and Sovetskii (former Johannes) pulp and paper making plants, the authors illustrate the polluting nature of the Soviet economy in the 1940s-1980s. We contend that from the very beginning, important as they were for the USSR, the enterprises of the Isthmus were built into a system of shortages of techniques and materials that contributed to the hectic fulfillment of the plan. Producing pulp and pulp-based products remained a priority during the whole Soviet period. On the level of industrial enterprises, the Soviet system revealed itself as incapable of solving the problem of pollution and wasting. After waste treatment facilities developed by Soviet engineers in the 1960s turned out to be inadequate for dealing with increasing pollution, the Soviet authorities called on Finnish companies to carry out substantial modernization of a few enterprises on the Isthmus. This helped the modernized plants remain functioning in the age of economic crisis at the end of the Soviet epoch. Old problems, however, such as shortages and lack of expertise, remained pivotal, while new sources of pollution, such as carbon emissions, appeared. As a result, the level of contamination was still high and led to negative environmental impacts.
The paper presents the position of the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, on the elaboration the Spatial Development Strategy of the Russian Federation. It is shown that in the formation of conceptual approaches to developing the strategy, there was a fundamental change in its priorities, focus, and implementation mechanisms. Whereas the first version of the strategy concept contained a truly progressive vision of the problems, challenges, priorities, possible scenarios of the country’s spatial development, and mechanisms for implementing the strategy, with each subsequent workflow step, these progressive approaches were lost. It is shown that, although the Spatial Development Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 adopted in early 2019 partly took into account comments and suggestions, it nevertheless remained very vulnerable to criticism. The article considers conceptual defects in the Spatial Development Strategy of the Russian Federation, such as ignorance of new trends, challenges, and threats arising in the Russian economic space; the dominance of the idea of allocation of funds to implement the strategy only through the development of urban agglomerations, neglecting the tasks of ensuring social justice and supporting the human potential of Russian society, ensuring the environmental safety of business operations, and life of the population in particular territories, etc.