The paper is devoted to the study of cultural and psychological factors of parent-child value similarity among ethnic minorities living in different cultural contexts. Representatives of two generations of 118 Russian families in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR), where ethnic Russians are ethnic and religious minorities (distant cultural context) and of 109 Russian families in the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania (RSO-A), where Russians are ethnic minority and religious majority (close cultural context). The methods of the study include the Schwartz value questionnaire (PVQ-R), scales of ethnic and national identities from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project questionnaire and scales of perceived child-parent closeness, evaluated by children and parents. The results of path analysis in AMOS program showed that in the distant cultural context (KBR) ethno-national identity of Russian adolescents positively related to parent-child value similarity, whereas in the close cultural context (RSO) ethno-national identity of parents and perceived by children psychological closeness with their parents positively related to parent-child value similarity. In these two cultural contexts we also found that psychological closeness assessed by parents negatively related to parent-child value similarity.
This paper considers tolerance as a norm of diversity maintenance. It is argued that tolerance doesn’t presuppose acceptance of any diversity. The necessity to distinguish between constructive and destructive diversity is stated. An attempt to find the questions, answers to which would help researchers to feel the difference between tolerance and patience, is made. The mechanisms of differentiation between tolerance and patience are analyzed through the cultural practices of constructive diversity elimination and destructive diversity maintenance. On the one hand, we consider the origins of totalitarianism and phenomena of cultural dehumanization practices via the analysis of relevant philosophic, scientific and literary works. On the other hand, we investigate the mechanisms and cultural practices of “repressive diversity”, basing on the works of M. Lifshitz, G. Markuse, J. Baudrillard. Referring to the researches made by M. Bakhtin and V. Bibler, a dialogue as a practice of constructive diversity maintenance is revealed. The analogy of destructive and constructive diversity from the field of clinical psychology is brought. It is demonstrated that from the historic-evolutional point of view both - “intolerance towards diversity” and “tolerance with no borders” - are risky strategies for the existence and development of complex systems.
Military intervention is a method of international conflict resolution. Previous research has revealed the main factors influencing attitudes toward specific wars. In this study we investigated factors which predict attitudes toward war in general. We hypothesized that general attitudes toward war are predicted by psychological hardiness. However, this link is mediated by alienation from self, relationships and society. Russian residents (N=1427) filled out the scales for psychological hardiness, alienation and attitudes toward war. Structural equation modeling confirmed the hypotheses. The results showed that low psychological hardiness predicted high alienation from self, in relationships and society. Alienation, in turn, was linked to general attitudes toward war. Higher alienation from self and in relationship was correlated with more positive attitudes toward war, but higher alienation from society was related to more negative ones. These results are discussed with reference to the content of social norms and representations.
The author argues the necessity of studying thought as a basic psychological category, describing methodological principles of research, explaining the notion of the object thought, analyzing neurophysiological mechanism of thought processes, hypothesizing the structure of thought and how it is related to information and production of thought.