This paper considers tolerance as a norm of diversity maintenance. It is argued that tolerance doesn’t presuppose acceptance of any diversity. The necessity to distinguish between constructive and destructive diversity is stated. An attempt to find the questions, answers to which would help researchers to feel the difference between tolerance and patience, is made. The mechanisms of differentiation between tolerance and patience are analyzed through the cultural practices of constructive diversity elimination and destructive diversity maintenance. On the one hand, we consider the origins of totalitarianism and phenomena of cultural dehumanization practices via the analysis of relevant philosophic, scientific and literary works. On the other hand, we investigate the mechanisms and cultural practices of “repressive diversity”, basing on the works of M. Lifshitz, G. Markuse, J. Baudrillard. Referring to the researches made by M. Bakhtin and V. Bibler, a dialogue as a practice of constructive diversity maintenance is revealed. The analogy of destructive and constructive diversity from the field of clinical psychology is brought. It is demonstrated that from the historic-evolutional point of view both - “intolerance towards diversity” and “tolerance with no borders” - are risky strategies for the existence and development of complex systems.
Military intervention is a method of international conflict resolution. Previous research has revealed the main factors influencing attitudes toward specific wars. In this study we investigated factors which predict attitudes toward war in general. We hypothesized that general attitudes toward war are predicted by psychological hardiness. However, this link is mediated by alienation from self, relationships and society. Russian residents (N=1427) filled out the scales for psychological hardiness, alienation and attitudes toward war. Structural equation modeling confirmed the hypotheses. The results showed that low psychological hardiness predicted high alienation from self, in relationships and society. Alienation, in turn, was linked to general attitudes toward war. Higher alienation from self and in relationship was correlated with more positive attitudes toward war, but higher alienation from society was related to more negative ones. These results are discussed with reference to the content of social norms and representations.
The author argues the necessity of studying thought as a basic psychological category, describing methodological principles of research, explaining the notion of the object thought, analyzing neurophysiological mechanism of thought processes, hypothesizing the structure of thought and how it is related to information and production of thought.
The past few years have witnessed an increase of, on one hand, interest in popularized scientific knowledge, on the other hand, the number of people who believe in homeopathy and are wary of genetically modified products. It indicates a need for popularizing scientific knowledge including information about scientific psychology and scientifically developed practical methods which must be conveyed to the public at large, to those who take great interest in psychology, but look for information in the mass media rather than at school or university. In the last decade the social networks have become an everyday source of information for many people, especially young, and the quality of information about psychology being spread through the networks is of considerable interest to psychologists. The study described aimed to assess academic quality of psychological texts in theme communities, popular with users of the social network “Vkontakte”. Expert assessment (by young academic psychologists working at research institutes and universities of Moscow and St. Petersburg) helped to identify communities broadcasting academically correct (scientifically proved) and incorrect (not proved scientifically) information about psychology in the network. Texts (news, posts) from the two types of communities were identified with the help of the crawler, a system of collecting data from social networks, and prevalent subjects and terminology were identified with the help of computerized linguistic analysis. The terms “synapse”, “learning”, “axon”, “mediator” could serve as indicators of the academic nature of the texts, while “money”, “happiness”, “introvert” are indicators of the opposite. The authors intend to use the data obtained for developing recommendations for subscribers and network administrators interested in spreading scientific information about psychology.