Author treats an issue on getting a new knowledge from thought experiments. A history of the notion of thought experiment is presented in a few words. Author considers a concept of instinctive knowledge, which Ernst Mach used in his investigations of the thought experiments. He puts a question on about the cultural conditionality of “instinctive knowledge”. In conclusion author makes a conjecture on the method of thought experiment as a tool for selection of the new knowledge patterns of the world.
Review of Sinnott-Armstrong and W., Fogelin R. «Understanding arguments: an introduction to informal logic». 9th ed. Wadsworth : Cengane Learning, 2014
The aim of this paper is to discuss one distinct feature of linguistic communication, namely, misunderstanding. Along the general lines of the work of J. L. Austin misunderstanding treated as mistakes in communication or infelicities. The classification offered in the paper is based on the teaching practice and deals with two cases of infelicities – “total misunderstanding” and “overinterpretation”.
In the article approaches to a problem of “methodological pluralism” in psychology are discussed. Instead of hierarchy of “explanation levels”, essentially reduced to a certain fundamental level, the idea of “topological system” of the interconnected explanations is offered. Then, the experimental refutation of the explaining hypothesis crashed not only this one (more generally: not only system of theoretical sets in which this hypothesis is put forward) but all complex of scientificallypsychological explanations which could not remain indifferent to such refutation. Psychology keeping the methodological pluralism would become a disciplinary organism with uniform “nervous system” reacting on results of empirical researches.
The investigation is devoted to the problem of formal representaon of logical structure and ontological commitments of natural language event sentences. The speci city of ontological commitments problem with regard to natural and formal languages is shown. The alternative approaches to the formal representa on of event sentences (argument approach, davidsonian and neodavidsonian approaches, operator approach) are characterized with respect to their key features from formal logical and ontological points of view.
The article presents the possible role of measurement in quantum-mechanical description of physical reality. The widely spread interpretations of quantum phenomena are considered as indicating the apparent connection between conscious processes (such as observation) and the properties of the microcosm. The reasons for discrepancies between the results of observations of the microcosm and macrocosm and the potential association of consciousness with these reasons are closely investigated. The mentioned connection is meant to be interpreted in the sense that the probable requirement for a complete understanding of quantum theory is the adequate description of consciousness within it and that the correct theory of consciousness should include quantum-mechanical theoretical apparatus. The author draws the conclusions about the current state of the “measuring” problem in its relationship with consciousness. The research is based on current ideas of several leading physicists, philosophers and mathematicians