Usually the impact of the science in the civilization development is identified as scientific-technical progress. Impact of the science in the moral and culture is important never the less. It is determined by peculiarities of the scientific argumentation, experiences. All of these obvious facts, however, relate only to the first round of correlation ethical themes with modern science. We are talking about the socio-cultural context of perception of science and its results of the society, that is, the ethical factors acting on the outside with respect to the position of science, is not inherent in science itself. The second round of the ethical issues in relation to science related to the problem of rationality. Post positivism demonstrated the role and importance of the normative, regulatory and valuable moment in the content of theoretical knowledge. In this regard, even the question arose about the different types of scientific rationality and normatively. In this case we are talking about statutory regulators built into the very content of scientific knowledge, internally inherent therein. There is another circle in which there are ethics and science. It is a question of ethics, regulations, acting in the scientific community, to be exact – communities. There is impossible to get adequate understanding of the genesis of the liberalism, multiculturalism without take into account this role of science.
This text is a translation of an article by British idealist J.E. McTaggart “The Unreality of Time” pub- lished in the journal Mind in 1908. Author argues for the unreality of time by employing his typical methods – rejection of reality of contradictory objects, difference between real and existent, etc. This paper became a standard of excellence of McTaggart analytical style and is a classic example of British absolute idealism. The translation was made by Andrey A. Veretennikov.
Author treats an issue on getting a new knowledge from thought experiments. A history of the notion of thought experiment is presented in a few words. Author considers a concept of instinctive knowledge, which Ernst Mach used in his investigations of the thought experiments. He puts a question on about the cultural conditionality of “instinctive knowledge”. In conclusion author makes a conjecture on the method of thought experiment as a tool for selection of the new knowledge patterns of the world.
Review of Sinnott-Armstrong and W., Fogelin R. «Understanding arguments: an introduction to informal logic». 9th ed. Wadsworth : Cengane Learning, 2014
The aim of this paper is to discuss one distinct feature of linguistic communication, namely, misunderstanding. Along the general lines of the work of J. L. Austin misunderstanding treated as mistakes in communication or infelicities. The classification offered in the paper is based on the teaching practice and deals with two cases of infelicities – “total misunderstanding” and “overinterpretation”.
In the article approaches to a problem of “methodological pluralism” in psychology are discussed. Instead of hierarchy of “explanation levels”, essentially reduced to a certain fundamental level, the idea of “topological system” of the interconnected explanations is offered. Then, the experimental refutation of the explaining hypothesis crashed not only this one (more generally: not only system of theoretical sets in which this hypothesis is put forward) but all complex of scientificallypsychological explanations which could not remain indifferent to such refutation. Psychology keeping the methodological pluralism would become a disciplinary organism with uniform “nervous system” reacting on results of empirical researches.
The investigation is devoted to the problem of formal representaon of logical structure and ontological commitments of natural language event sentences. The speci city of ontological commitments problem with regard to natural and formal languages is shown. The alternative approaches to the formal representa on of event sentences (argument approach, davidsonian and neodavidsonian approaches, operator approach) are characterized with respect to their key features from formal logical and ontological points of view.