The article presents a reflection of various approaches to explaining the legitimacy of socially oriented non-profit organizations (SONPOs): market orientation, social capital, institutional logic, emotional commitment, traditionalist attitudes, critical model. The analysis is based on theoretical sources, published results of relevant empirical studies, evidence from the Internet resources of non-profit organizations and mass media. SONPO legitimation models include normative justifications of the existing policies and practices in relation to such organizations. Following the rules of a market economy, SONPOs function, on the one hand, as autonomous entities, and on the other, as complementary to and controlled by the state institutions. The reforming social service systems in the regions are characterized by varying degrees of involvement of non-profit providers. Thus, the consideration of questions of legitimacy in specific institutional contexts is required. It is shown that although the market affiliation of SONPOs partly increases their readiness for the challenges of the external environment, the low level of public and institutional trust makes them vulnerable in front of the more powerful and resource-provided competitors. The uneven growth of trust in various forms of public associations is determined at the macro level by reforms in the social sphere, while different subjects of partnership in the social sphere have different arguments for legitimizing the non-profit providers. Legitimation is becoming an individual and collective upward mobility project for the non-profit social service providers. In the process of legitimization, the non-profit providers of social services are assigned with characteristics defined by the legislation, indicators of ratings and assessments, discussed in the communities of NPOs and mass media. Organizations strive to meet the requirements and public expectations in terms of market efficiency, embeddedness in a local context, affective and value congruence with donors and target groups, partnerships with government agencies. At the same time, SONPOs are expected to be flexible enough in order to maneuver between the expectations of different stakeholders and weave different logics into their organizational identity
The article introduces the new possibilities for the analysis of sociological views of Marx basing on the publication of his manuscripts, excerpts and epistolary heritage provided by the full academic edition of collected works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in the original languages (Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, MEGA). It is shown that the manuscripts and original versions of “Capital” contain a number of ideas important for interpretation of sociological views of Marx (a commodity as the own result of the capital; private property as just a legal shell of the bourgeois economic relations; the logic and the stages of technological development on the basis of capital, etc.) which only fragmentary were reflected in the “Capital” itself. After the release of volume 1 (1867) Marx made several attempts to complete the “Сapital”, his preliminary versions of the books 2 and 3 show that he was evident of the core theoretical problems of the concluding parts of the book (such as the analysis of the reproduction of the total capital of the society and the explanation of the average rate of profit on the basis of the labour theory of value), but he never managed to solve them successfully. In the last period of his life Marx sparingly informed even his closest friends on the state and prospects of his work; many important ideas were not understood by them, including Engels who contributed to the formation of the orthodox “materialist understanding of history”. After Marx’s death, partly due to the complexity and difficulty of his theory, partly because of incompleteness of the drafts of the final parts of the “Capital” the Engels’ version of his ideas played an important role, influencing the largely popular interpretations of Marx’s theory. On their base, both the Historical Materialism and its criticism were formed. To enable an adequate perception of the heritage of Marx in the 21th century, the integration into the scientific discourse of those materials which became public only in the last decades is needed.
This study analyses individual-choice attitudes measured as justifiability of abortions, divorces, and pre-marital sex in ten post-Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia in the Caucasus, as well as Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and Estonia. We show that individualchoice values in those countries are not in all cases associated with younger age, female gender, higher education, higher living standards, and urban settings. In post-Soviet countries the rejection or support for individual choice is conditioned by the degree of a respondents’ national pride rather than socio-demographic characteristics.
Drawing on the sociological conception of globalization (especially on G. Ritzer's version of Americanization) the author analyses the Russia's inclusion in the global community. The process of inclusion is demonstrated in three fields of activity: higher education, tourism, and work. The author points to the "experimental" character of modern Russian culture which anticipates the global tendencies.
Imagine walking home alone on a dark street. How safe do you feel? This is one of the many questions that constitute the subject of research on perceived safety. Being often considered as an indicator of the quality of life and well-being of the population, perceived safety receives great attention from social scientists and practitioners. However, in Russia this area remains underdeveloped. With the help of regression analysis, this article addresses the relationship between socio-demographic factors (independent variables) and the perception of street safety (dependent variable) by different groups of the Russian population. The article draws on four nationally representative samples obtained via two survey projects in the years 2010 and 2016: European Social Survey (ESS) and Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics (RLMS). Two sources of data enable for data triangulation and help to overcome the limitations of previous research on perceived safety in Russia that relied on narrow nonprobability samples. The results suggest that despite the overall decline in the level of feelings of unsafety, inequality in perceived safety remains stable in Russia. A more intense feeling of unsafety after dark in the area of residence is reported by: women; residents of large cities; older people; people with poor subjective health; people who have faced criminal victimization. No stable relationship was found between the feeling of unsafety and the level of education. In addition, interaction effects of age and gender and curvilinear effects of age are examined. Young men are the least susceptible to feeling unsafe. Older men have an increased feeling of unsafety as opposed to younger men but older women are no different from younger women in this regard.
This paper explores heterogeneity of the alcohol drinking patterns in contemporary Russia demonstrated by consumers of homemade alcohol. Demographic, socio-economic, spatial, and availability factors affecting the consumption of homemade alcoholic beverages are investigated. Data were collected from the RLMS-HSE nationwide survey of individuals aged 15+ years in 2014.
Along with the group of samogon consumers, a group of homemade wine consumers has been revealed for the first time by survey methods. Two groups of samogon and homemade wine consumers are similar in size, show very little overlap, and demonstrate contrasting drinking patterns. Samogon consumers are more addicted to alcohol and drank it in more hazardous ways whereas homemade wine consumers demonstrated more moderate and law-abiding drinking habits.
Past-month drinking of samogon and homemade wine are used as two dependent variables in a binary logistic regression, with demographic, socio-economic, spatial, and availability factors and regional prices of manufactured alcohol as predictors. Samogon consumers are overrepresented among male drinkers, older people, and respondents with a lower level of education and income. They lived in rural areas more and in non-southern regions of Russia. Homemade wine consumers demonstrated the opposite features.
Evaluating the impact of the new alcohol policy of the Russian government, we conclude that the availability of homemade alcohol in respondents’ localities provided the most influential predictors of its consumption whereas price increase for recorded alcohol resulting from the most recent governmental fiscal interventions is not significantly associated with the consumption of homemade alcohol, at least from a short-term perspective.
This analytical overview examines the main understandings of culture in contemporary sociological theory. It attempts to reconstruct the theoretical logic behind the classical functionalist understanding of culture. It is argued that the classical model of culture has its roots in Durkheim’s works on collective representations. It is then explained how Parsons’ interpretation of Durkheim’s theoretical legacy shaped the former’s concept of cultural system. Next, the classical model of culture is criticized from the point of view of modern psychology and cognitive sciences. The key premises of Ann Swidler’s alternative model of culture are then outlined. After that, the research tradition of “The Sociology of Culture and Cognition” is introduced. Vaisey’s “dual-process” model of culture is then scrutinized in the light of its significance for the conceptual integration of Parsons’ and Swidler’s accounts of culture. The distinction between non-declarative and declarative culture, as well as between public and personal culture proposed by Lizardo is discussed in view of its contribution to the development of the dual-process model. The limitations of dual-process theories of culture are then made explicit. Following the debate between Lizardo and Turner, the role of mirror neurons in the transmission of practical competencies from one actor to another is analyzed. A brief critique of the psychological foundations of dual process theories is then offered. The main points of the debate between computationalist and enactivist approaches in cognitive sciences are then summarized. The philosophical ideas of levels of analysis, social emergence, and downward causation are considered thereafter. In conclusion, the main prospects of further theoretical development are laid out.
This paper develops a strategy for investigating the new institutionalism in economic sociology. An analytical scheme is proposed to link institutional arrangements, structure of incentives, and conceptions of control. Questions regarding the legitimacy of claims on resources and profits, contract enforcements, and business networking are discussed on the theoretical level.
The notion of city image is connected with social city space and collective identity. We construct the space around us associating it with meaningful events from our lives or from wider historical and cultural context. The space begins to make sense for us only after we describe it and put it in some storyline or even chronological outline. In this article we consider different approaches to the concept of the city image, analyse ways of its making and perception, and suggest comparing special levels of describing - iconic and everyday images of the city - and their transformation conditions. The particular attention is given to the reasons of existing and co-existing of various interpretations of the same space.
There are many arguments which cause countries to take part in the competition for the right to host the Olympic Games. The most important of them are increasing of host region reputation, development of infrastructure and improvement of the competitiveness of the national brands. However Olympics expectations are often too high compared with the actual results. This paper discusses the international experience of using the Olympic Games as a tool for creating a positive image of the Olympic capital and the host region in general. The study covers period from 1972 to 2012. It identifies both positive and negative effects of Olympic Games on the host region development and image. The special attention was paid to the positive Olympic experience in Beijing (2008) and London (2012). These Olympic Games can be considered as an effective tool both for social and economic development and for strengthening of the political position of the host countries in the international scene. Studying and using the key elements of a technology of positive image creating is important for Sochi Olympic Games because its main political goal is to increase Russia’s international influence. The paper formulates the problems of political positioning of Winter Olympic Games Sochi - 2014 and identifies the main risks and conditions of achieving its image goals.
In social studies of technology, one of the topical issues concerns what happens when tasks and activities performed by people before are provided by information technologies. This article examines experience of a telephone inquiry service user and focuses on the question of how interaction work is organized in a telephone conversation of a user with an automated operator and human operator. To answer to this question, a framework of conversation analysis is employed, which allows considering social interaction in details. Records of telephone calls to the reference service, as well as data from observation and conversations with employees of the organization, were material for the study. It is shown that in studies of social interaction with information systems scholars point out limitations of machine’s communicative resources. Examination of call center case (interaction of human operators and users) proves that operators are capable of following a call “script”, cope with organizational restrictions and solve problems in interaction using turn-taking, tone, and even speech overlaps to achieve mutual understanding with users. Then, interaction of users and robot is analysed and compared with human operators. We identify the features of the interaction work of conversation participants in cases where users encounter a machine. It is shown that the robot acts independently from its counterpart and does not respond to situational circumstances, it “detaches” user’s turns and makes them separate, controls what can be said and perceived – and at which points. However, users adapt to these specific interaction features during a call.