In his article the author considers Russias problems in the context of Dresden. Three fi gures of Russian culture which have infl uenced European spirituality - Bakunin, Dostoevsky, Stepun - as fate would have formulated the most important postulates of their concepts was in Dresden. Near to them the author raises the congenial fi gure of Hoffmann, Wagner and Tillich. During the Dresden uprising in May 1849 Bakunin proposed to cover the barricade Madonna by Raphael. In Dresden Dostoevsky wrote a great novel The Possessed, which depicted the dire consequences for European culture Bakunin ideas that paved the way for Bolshevism and Nazism. In Dresden at 30 years of the last century in the texts Stepun and Paul Tillich arose again the theme of demonic.
David Humes heritage is considered as philosophy of culture, corresponding to the time of its writing, which marked the beginning of a turn from classical model of culture to nonclassical one. Todays nonclassical philosophy of culture addresses itself to Humes ideas of illusiveness of a Self, to his moral philosophy, philosophy of religion, and to his critic of methodological use of a concept of causality, viewing them as its background.
In the O. A. Zhukova’s article Evgeny Trubetskoy as a Philosopher of History: on the Meaning of Russian Revolution is shown that Evgeny Trubetskoy raised the question about the meaning of war and the causes of the Russian revolution, continuing the line of reasoning about the specifics of the national history and the spiritual crisis of the Christian civilization, which was developed by European and Russian thinkers in the last third of the XIX century.-
This article is a polemical response to the sketch by A.Yu Nedel (“Voprosy Filosofii”, 7, 2018). There we criticize his hypothesis of soteriological pattern of Husserl's phenomenology. We use the statements of Husserl and Vasubandhu on the strategic purposes of their researches as the arguments of refutation. Their statements demonstrate the fundamental differences between the purposes of both philosophers, the differences of the implicit presuppositions of their researches determined by their cultures (in particular, different views on consciousness: Husserl saw consciousness as intentional, and Buddhists saw it as non-intentional). We point out in the article the unclear meanings of Husserl’s thesis “Back to the things themselves”, the invalid interpretations of Sanskrit terms and too shallow generalizations made by the author, in particular, the identification of Husserl’s “pure consciousness” (reine Bewußtsein) with the Buddhist “pure consciousness” (anāsravā-prajñā).
This paper examines ontological strategies of Western existential philosophy (its "atheistic" current) and the Buddhist philosophical school (darsana) of madhyamaka. We can discover similar phenomenological strategies together with extreme differences in anthropology and the value purposes (personalism and deconstruction of classical European subject in the existential philosophy and radical impersonalism of Buddhism). We suppose that Heidegger, Sartre and Buddhism have comparable theories of consciousness. The madhyamaka's "sunyata" (emptiness) is comparable with Heidegger's and Sartre's "Nothingness" (though they are not absolutely similar) and we can discover primacy of negativity in both cases. We also try to substantiate that the position of madhyamaka (that created a fundamental ontology) was a radical nihilism and not scepticism contrary to the position of a number of modern buddologists. And what is also important for us is the problem of the "unhappy consciousness" (be it Buddhist "duhkha" or "Sorge" of Heidegger, or Sartre's "Nausea") and different attitudes of thinkers towards it.
The article concentrates on Chicherin, a Russian philosopher and lawyer, and his views on the correlation between liberty, law and morality. The author comments on Chicherin's ideas in the context of other views existing at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries. These are the views of such representatives of the Russian socially political, legal and philosophical ideas as Kavelin, Novgorodtsev, Struve, Alekseev and others, including modern researchers. Special reference is maid to Chicherin and Solovyov's polemics, which is important step in the history of Russian philosophy. Pointing out a constant connection between law and morality, that often complement each other on the basis of common values, Chicherin strongly insisted on differentiating between these notions. He was sure that the only way to a moral ideal was freedom, not an outward compulsion. And our past historical experience is the best confirmation of this idea. The work also focuses on the fact that the peculiarity of Russian law philosophy is its concentration on the questions of morality and law, the attempt of becoming closer to a moral ideal.
In this article we show that it is possible to put the point of divergence of ethics to the time of the early Pythagorean school. The analysis of the specific amalgamation of monism and the ontological and epistemological dualism of the early Pythagoreans and Eleatics shows that European thought inherited from these schools а philosophical foundation of interrelationship between cosmology and ethics together with a tangle of unresolved problems. These problems are visible in the first appearances of philosophical reactions to four key existentialist-epistemological phenomena: the twoness, the angst, the dirtiness, and the error. We follow the traces of this heritage, systematised by Plato and Aristotle, through examples from the teachings of Galileo, Kepler, Agrippa, Descartes and Bacon, Kant's schematism and categorical imperative, Vernadsky's noosphere, and Næss' deep ecology and his quest for a “non-Galilean” ontology.
“The mountain teaches silence” – these words from “Meditation on the Peaks” by Julius Evola highlight the special place, which mountains occupied in western esotericism. Julius Evola, Aleister Crowley, Otto Rahn were also ardent mountain climbers and saw in the conquest of the mountains the analogue of the inner spiritual path. For different currents of theosophy mountains was the habitat of a mysterious “spiritual masters” (Blavatsky – the Himalayas; Roerich – the Altai mountains). For the writer Algernon Blackwood the Caucasus Mountains was a place where man can attain spiritual rebirth. There are various explanations for the popularity of the mountains in the esotericism at the turn of the century. For the Europeans high inaccessible mountains represent the final frontier, places not yet reached a civilized man, and therefore shelter for mysteries and secrets. It is no coincidence that after the conquest of Everest in 1953 stories about space aliens become so popular, exotic border has shifted outside the earth. The role of the mountains might also be explained due to their significance for traditional religions.
The O.A. Zhukova's article presents the idea that Vyazemsky creates aesthetic canon of Russian classics, showing the process of universalization of aesthetic values in Russian culture. He consistently defended the thesis of the necessary of national literature in relationship with spiritual traditions and civil institutions of the people. The author reveals the aesthetic sense of the Vyzemsky's program, wich structural elements are the language as a form of expression of thought, historism in the formation of national literature and the ideas of the Enlightenment.
The article discusses the historical image of Neoplatonism as it emerges in the works of A.A. Takho-Godi based on the analysis of Proclus’ hymnography and the history of the notion of “symbol.” Neoplatonism is presented as a historically localized phenomenon viewed both from the outside, from other cultures, and from within the classical antiquity itself. Moreover, in some cases, Neoplatonism even conflicts with or the very least engages into a counterpoint dialog with its own cultural milieu. Therefore, a “reading” of Neoplatonism is only possible through a reconstruction of the entire organics of the era. Yet, as A.A. Takho-Godi demonstrates, this is precisely what makes the spiritual experience of Neoplatonism necessary for heterogeneous cultures that both create their own boundaries and recognize the imperative to overcome them. The very research methodology adopted by A.A. Takho-Godi allows arriving at the noted results; it is marked by such qualities as logistic rigor and philological care; crucially, it entails considering the subject of analysis in its specific historic and cultural context that excludes any reductions or universalizations. The article characterizes this method as one of the possible “third ways” of the historical and philosophic analysis; it was developed by A.F. Losev; A.A. Takho-Godi elaborated it and applied to specific phenomena of the classical antiquity.
The article focuses on an analysis of the possible connection between the second law of thermodynamics and time. The growth of entropy as a physical process - mostly its technical side - has been well studied but in fact there is no philosophical interpretation of this phenomenon according to the current research, in particular, regarding the inflation model, black holes, the holographic principle, the quantum gravity, etc. Article enhances the role of the second law in its precise connection with these promising areas of theoretical physics, which allow us to take a fresh look at law`s significance and corollaries.
In an effort to achieve this task the contexts of history of science, philosophy and modern physical research are involved. The article proposes two ways of handling the low-entropic initial state (in connection with the concept of “time arrow”). The first one is based on the assumption that if there is a selected time reference point when it should have relatively low entropy (because of its distinguishability and uniqueness). Another approach is based on the fact that gravity plays the role of a low-entropy factor which is able to explain the initial state and the observed increase in entropy in the selected direction over time.
In conclusion these ideas` possible significance for the development of the quantum gravity theory is introduced.
The author considers Information Openness of social structures as the problem in the context of the general problems of the social development.