The author of the article attempts at assessing the number of nobles (boyars) in pre-Mongol Rus’. He uses the data from non-narrative sources, first of all from the treaty of 944 between Rus’ und Byzamtium, and from those chronicle’s reports which indicate directly to numbers of boyars in certain local centers – these reports are coming back to the 13-14th centuries. He concludes that the ruling classes in the different polities on the territory of Rus’ during the 10-14th centuries (from the Dnieper Rus’ of the middle of the 10th century to independent princedoms-lands of the 12-14th centuries) consisted of no more than 20-30 persons. The number of the whole estate of boyars at the beginning of the 13th century was approx. 1500 persons (not numbering members of their families).
In his paper A. V. Voevodsky analyzes the Russian-South African interaction in the sphere of the higher education. The author considers historical background of relations of two countries in this area during the Soviet period. Untill 1990 th these contacts were developed mainly through two main forces of liberation movement in apartheid era — ANC and SACP. The interaction between the Republic of South Africa and Russia in the sphere of the higher education, as well as in other areas of economic and cultural cooperation has sharply weakened with the collapse of the USSR. The number of South African students in Russia has decreased practically to zero. The introduction in 2010 of the RSA in BRICS and the signing in 2013 of the Joint Declaration on the establishment of a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the Russian Federation and the Republic of South Africa gave a new impulse to relationship between Russia and RSA. Nowadays, despite the remaining difficulties in coordination of educational policy of the two countries, we can acknowledge a revival of contacts in the sphere of the higher education with a number of bilateral agreements between the South African universities and the Russian educational and scientific organizations and a growth of number of the South African students trained at the Russian universities. In this article are reviewed possible steps of this cooperation further expansion. © https://history.jes.su/s207987840001442-5-1-en
The article addresses the question about the characteristics of everyday knowledge about the past and its features which appeared in the discussions on the online forum. To answer this question the paper explores, first, the kind of source which is provided by the chosen web forum, the type of communication which takes place there and its influence on the content of statements about the past made by users of the online forum. Second, the main part of this paperis devoted to the analysis of the online discussions’ contents and to the explication of the characteristics of popular knowledge of the past. In the conclusion, the article argues that the discussions about history include some common elements, which turn this kind of knowledge into the particular pattern of everyday knowledge.
The author analyses the text of the “Second Partida” fixed in the ms. 43-11 of the Toledo's Cathedral's Library. The manuscript was made by Juan Alfonso Trujillo, a subordinate of Toledo's archbishop Pedro de Luna, the nephew of the Anti-Pope Benedict XIII. The author affirms that the Archbishop was a direct customer of this manuscript and that he had a plans to make a gift to his vassal and younger friend, the dean of the Toledo Chapter, Juan Martinez de Contreras. The present should include all the Seven "Partidas," but an unexpected death of Pedro de Luna interrupted the work with the manuscript. Having as his goal to fix the place of the ms.43-11 within the frame of the manuscript tradition of the "Second Partida" and of all the "Seven Partidas" as a whole, the author analyses the problem of the existence of these manuscripts before and after the 1348 AD. This year the king of Castile Alphonse XI, being at the Cortes at Alcala-de-Henares, proclaimed the Partidas as one of the official sources of law of his kingdom and ordered to "collect and concord" all the evidence of this text for prepare its official version. The author concludes that one of the primary results of this order became an appearance of the many manuscripts which contained the text of two or three (or even more) Partidas at once. Until 1348 the Partidas usually existed as separate books. The analysis of the transcription of "Second Partida" fixed in the ms. 43-11 and also of its marginal notes allows fixing one more consequence of the king Alphonse's order. Until 1348 the text of Partidas suffered multiple changes and variations. In particular, there were three (as a minimum) major versions of the "Second Partida", that the author marks as a "versio primitiva", "versio primitiva-1" and "versio elaborata". The main difference between them was a distinct arrangement of the laws in the third part of the text, known as a "treaty on the war". The decision of Alphonse XI fixed the "versio elaborata" as an official text due to its readiness. However, the analysis of the manuscript 43-11 shows that the realization of this royal decision was a long and arduous process: a copyist that had written this text took before his eyes some manuscript with the "versio primitiva" and wanted to make its copy. However, the major scribe, who controlled his work, compelled him to change the text into the "versio elaborata" as an established by a royal will and, therefore, an official.
The article provides an overview of documents concerning Russiaб both political and diplomatic, contained in the Historical Archives in the 2nd Section (Section for Relations with Foreign States) of the Vatican State Secretariat (the former Archives of the Congregation for Extraordinary Church Affairs) — from the earliest documents dating back to the 17th century to documents of the late twentieth century. The Congregation for Extraordinary Church Affairs itself arose in 1814 and was aimed at restoring the relationship between the Church and the state in the field of civil law, education, jurisdiction and freedom of the Church, the management of dioceses, negotiations on the appointment of bishops, relations between the clergy and the authorities, not to mention plots, concerning spiritual, dogmatic, moral, disciplinary problems in various European countries. Particular emphasis is placed on documents relating to the period 1917—1939, which is explained, in particular, by the fact that for the period since 1939 the documentation in the Archives of the Vatican is not yet available. The author, however, draws attention to the papers of Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, which are kept in the Spolya Foundation in the Historical Archive of the State Secretariat and are now available to researchers.
The article is devoted to the Cadiz Constitution as a legal act, created in the first period of the constitutional development of the continental European states. The author presents an analysis of the Constitution`s content and formal characteristics. Few of them have subsequently been taken by legislators to elaborate another constitutional projects in Spain and other countries in the world. The author also presents the overview of the historical and political significance of the Constitution of 1812, confirmed through the history of its adoption and four promulgations. It was considered to be a symbol of people`s resistance, which determined its ideological and intellectual influence on his contemporaries. Particular attention is paid to the information of Cadiz Constitution in Russia and its role in Russian-Spanish relations during the war with Napoleonic France, the influence on the political and legal views of the Decembrists.
At the conclusion of Dio’s Olympian Oration there is a famous comparison of two images of Zeus - a sculptural image created by Phidias and a poetic one produced by Homer. Dio compares their specific traits, contrasting the peaceful and kind Zeus of Phidias with his ever-changing image in Homer that seems at times benevolent yet at other times belligerent and terrible. 1. I am tracing the content of the comparison back to two topoi of Hellenistic rhetoric that asked the question of how Phidias could produce his work when he did not have a model before his eyes. 2. By analyzing the whole of Dio’s speech in comparison with his orations On Kingdom, as well as with the Hellenistic treatises On Kingdom, I aim to demonstrate that it is the Roman power, in particular, the power of Emperor Trajan, which is epitomized by Dio’s Zeus, and that the message of the Olympian Oration was to affirm the peaceful character of his rule notwithstanding his wars against the Daci.
In the article the author analyses the semantics of the word bo(l)jarin in the texts in Old Slavonic and Church Slavonic dating back to the 10-11th centuries. The author concludes that the word denoted a noble person who owed his upper status not to moral authority or local (tribal) background but to possession of political power and offices. This conclusion gives a context to understand the meanings of the word in the Old Russian sources of the 11th century. There are no obstacles to think that the main meaning was the same as in the Old and Church Slavonic texts.
The article examines the “media preparations” of the Russian conquest of the Middle Asia. It analyzes various forces which influenced shaping of public opinion in favor of or against the Russian policy in the Middle Asia. The paper outlines actors of shaping of public opinion and methods they used.
The article discusses the interpretation of national history in the Rwandan history schoolbooks and curricula of the mid-2000s — late 2010s. The author analyses the way of describing the causes of the civil war of 1990—1994, a key issue in the twenty-five year debates about the main culprits of the 1994 genocide. The study shows that despite the joint US-Rwandan research team’s attempt in 2006 to develop a conceptual framework for interpreting national history in secondary schools, based on a critical evaluation of past events, the further history curriculum development was subordinated to the Rwandan politics of memory, to the RPF government’s desire to impose its version of national history on society in order to achieve “national reconciliation”.
The article illustrates the development of women's history from the beginning to the present day in the USA and Russia (USSR), the main stages of this development, changes in approaches to problem solving.
The published documents from the Russian State Archive of Contemporary History (RGANI) shed light on the history of the early contacts of the USSR with the Angolan anti-colonial movements. The publication includes recordings of conversations of Soviet representatives with FNLA leader H. Roberto and with former Foreign Minister of the Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile (GRAE) J. Savimbi, as well as Savimbi’s statement on the resignation. These documents demonstrate how complicated the situation in the Angolan liberation movement was and what difficulties the Soviet leadership faced in choosing its ally.
The paper provides a review of the one of the recent studies, dedicated to the Vandal kingdom in North Africa, the book by Robin Whelan about origin and character of the inter-faith confrontation in this region in the 5-th — 6-th century (Whelan R. Being Christian in Vandal Africa: The Politics of Orthodoxy in the Post-Imperial West. California, 2018). This subject is the most important one for research of the political history of the Vandal kingdom, because it is directly linked to the question about the conflict between the local elites. The main thesis of the monograph, that the groups of such elites had mixed nature — as from ethnic, so in religious and ideological point of view, and that its essence was determined in terms of power struggle, in the absence of serious doctrinal contradictions — is assessed here critically. On material of the Roman authors, who lived at that time in Africa (particularly Dracontius), counter-arguments are given.
This article deals with the relations between Russia and Spain in the epoch of the Cortes of Cadiz and the elaboration of the Constitution (1810-1812) and explores the activities of the diplomats of both countries, aimed at the drafting and signing of the Russian-Spanish alliance treaty in July 1812. The author focuses on the service at the Court of Madrid of Pavel Morengeim, the Russian chargé d'affaires (1808-1810, 1810-1812), shows his assessment of the situation in Spain, which has influenced the attitude to the Spanish events and the Constitution of 1812 in Russia.
In the autumn of 1925, when Vatican hopes to achieve a modus vivendi with the Soviet Union had almost vanished, the situation of the Catholic Church in the Communist country was becaming increasingly dramatic.