The article is devoted to the Cadiz Constitution as a legal act, created in the first period of the constitutional development of the continental European states. The author presents an analysis of the Constitution`s content and formal characteristics. Few of them have subsequently been taken by legislators to elaborate another constitutional projects in Spain and other countries in the world. The author also presents the overview of the historical and political significance of the Constitution of 1812, confirmed through the history of its adoption and four promulgations. It was considered to be a symbol of people`s resistance, which determined its ideological and intellectual influence on his contemporaries. Particular attention is paid to the information of Cadiz Constitution in Russia and its role in Russian-Spanish relations during the war with Napoleonic France, the influence on the political and legal views of the Decembrists.
At the conclusion of Dio’s Olympian Oration there is a famous comparison of two images of Zeus - a sculptural image created by Phidias and a poetic one produced by Homer. Dio compares their specific traits, contrasting the peaceful and kind Zeus of Phidias with his ever-changing image in Homer that seems at times benevolent yet at other times belligerent and terrible. 1. I am tracing the content of the comparison back to two topoi of Hellenistic rhetoric that asked the question of how Phidias could produce his work when he did not have a model before his eyes. 2. By analyzing the whole of Dio’s speech in comparison with his orations On Kingdom, as well as with the Hellenistic treatises On Kingdom, I aim to demonstrate that it is the Roman power, in particular, the power of Emperor Trajan, which is epitomized by Dio’s Zeus, and that the message of the Olympian Oration was to affirm the peaceful character of his rule notwithstanding his wars against the Daci.
In the article the author analyses the semantics of the word bo(l)jarin in the texts in Old Slavonic and Church Slavonic dating back to the 10-11th centuries. The author concludes that the word denoted a noble person who owed his upper status not to moral authority or local (tribal) background but to possession of political power and offices. This conclusion gives a context to understand the meanings of the word in the Old Russian sources of the 11th century. There are no obstacles to think that the main meaning was the same as in the Old and Church Slavonic texts.
The article examines the “media preparations” of the Russian conquest of the Middle Asia. It analyzes various forces which influenced shaping of public opinion in favor of or against the Russian policy in the Middle Asia. The paper outlines actors of shaping of public opinion and methods they used.
The article illustrates the development of women's history from the beginning to the present day in the USA and Russia (USSR), the main stages of this development, changes in approaches to problem solving.
This article deals with the relations between Russia and Spain in the epoch of the Cortes of Cadiz and the elaboration of the Constitution (1810-1812) and explores the activities of the diplomats of both countries, aimed at the drafting and signing of the Russian-Spanish alliance treaty in July 1812. The author focuses on the service at the Court of Madrid of Pavel Morengeim, the Russian chargé d'affaires (1808-1810, 1810-1812), shows his assessment of the situation in Spain, which has influenced the attitude to the Spanish events and the Constitution of 1812 in Russia.
In the autumn of 1925, when Vatican hopes to achieve a modus vivendi with the Soviet Union had almost vanished, the situation of the Catholic Church in the Communist country was becaming increasingly dramatic.
The article attempts to reconstruct concepts and classifications of the public speech and its significance in the everyday life of the Portuguese court society of the 1nd half of the XV c. The main sources of the study are the treatise of Duarte (1391— 1438, the king of Portugal since 1433) “The Loyal Counsellor” (Leal Conselheiro, ca. 1437—1438) and his “Book of advises” (Livro dos Conselhos de el-rei D. Duarte, 1430s). The treatise was largely created under the influence of the moral and political philosophy of Cicero and Seneca, tradition of mirrors for princes (specula principum, especially, Giles of Rome), the works of the Castilian humanist Alonso from Cartagena. But both “The Honest Counselor” and (especially) “The Book of Soviets” were focused on political and everyday practices. These texts included written advices by members of the royal family and clerics, medics, and lawyers. The King Duarte’s specific combination of “theory” and “practice” made it possible to study the ways of interaction between the system of moral standards and everyday life. The concepts formed a “field of coordinates” for aristocratic interpersonal communication. On the other hand, Duarte took moral examples from patterns for everyday life (especially of recent past). The article analyzes terms of these texts that described and formed social interactions at the royal court. The way the role of written and public speech (including councils themselves) was interpreted is related to the key terms of the king Duarte’s moral and political system: the honesty/loyalty (lealdade), the love (amor), the trust (fiúza е confiança). They form the base for the friendly and relative speech. Its main characteristic was the clarity. The lack of clarity was characteristic of communication with the outside world. In such case a common secret (segredo) fastened family ties. Slander (detraçom) is evaluated without use of the “clarity” concept, it seemed to be an instrument directed against the "good fame" as the basis of social status.
The paper deals with transfer of Western technologies into the Soviet forestry concentrating on the area of Karelian Peninsula and Ladoga Karelia in 1953 - 1964. The area was a center in the Nikita Khrushchev`s modernization as there were several large factories which produced pulp and paper. Specialists from the factories were sent to Finland within the Soviet-Finnish cooperation to study Western technologies. In this I examine their activities as well as technologies they brought to the Soviet-Union.
This article examines special features of pleasure gardens (amusement parks) in the late imperial Russia and demonstrates them as sociocultural phenomena. The author attempts to broaden the horizon of the urban leisure studies by addressing to the experience of amusement parks and urban history studies gained by the foreign colleagues. Pleasure gardens appeared to be remarkable phenomena in the urban space of the late imperial Russia in both, a province and capital cities. They managed to become the fin-de-siècle translators of the developing mass culture and were also a place where high culture met the low. The author stresses the significant contribution of the pleasure gardens into the leveling of the audience tastes and into the leisure democratization.
This article is dedicated to the visigothic symphony, incarnated in the last canon of IV council of Toledo, when the Church took a possibility to form an ideology and to influence the reality. TheparticipantsoftheIVcouncilofToledodecreed that a king must be elected by bishops and nobility, and this fact testifies theirs political ambitions. AtonetheChurch (representedby most educated bishops, for example, Isidore of Seville and his disciples) imagines itself as protector of right king. Theparticipantsofcouncil created an ideal of governor, and the real king was obliged to follow it, otherwise he may deprive himself of the Churchs supporting. Butthejustandmerciful king disposed of Churchs defence: and the state criminal, who had encroached upon his life and throne, where anathematized. The ideas, formulated on IV council of Toledo, were developed in the kings code of law (Liber Iudiciorum), promulgated in 654.
The article considers the evolution of the concept of the political in the context of intellectual history, the criteria for its selection and its basic version.
On 1925 the Pope Pius XI established the Pontifical Commission "Pro Russia".
The article deals with the Byzantine background of the crisis in the Russian Church which unfolded in 1156–1169 and was caused by the introduction of new rules of fasting and asceticism by the Greek bishops under the leadership of metropolitan Constantine I of Rus'. The article begins with a close look at the controversies that shook the patriarchate of Constantinople in 1040s–1060s, and were caused by, at first, inaction, and later by decisive actions of emperor Manuel I Comnenos. A close study of these controversies sheds light on the struggle of the two ecclesiastical parties, both composed mostly of former and current deacons of Hagia Sophia. The first of these parties sought to preserve the status quo in the Orthodox Church as it took shape under the first Comnenoi emperors, particularly in relation to the fasting discipline that conformed to the old Studite tradition. This party was represented by Patriarchs Cosmas II Atticus and Nicholas IV Muzalon, metropolitan Eustathius of Dyrrhachium, and by such intellectuals as Michael of Thessalonica, Nicephoros Basilakes, Soterichos Panteugenes, and possibly by John Tzetzes. The other party sought to revise the rules of fasting and asceticism, seeing it as a return to the ancient "apostolic" norms, while being guided by the reformed monastic tradition (i. e., of the so-called "Evergetine Reform Movement"). Among its supporters, one can count the patriarchs Michael II Kourkouas and Theodotus II, such prominent officials as Leo Hicanatus and John Pantechnes, deacon Basil-"Bagoas", metropolitan of Ephesus, George Tornikos, and metropolitan of Rus', Constantine I. In their mutual struggle, these parties used all possible means and took turns in deposing the patriarchs who did not share their views, denouncing their opponents as heretics and persecuting them, if such opportunity arose. The second of these parties was especially successful in using these means. At last, at the 1156–1157 Church councils of Constantinople, the second party succeeded in dealing the final blow to their opponents, which allowed Constantine I and his followers to impose without reservation the new rules of asceticism in Rus'. However, after the 1166 council, when Manuel I started to be inclined towards the ecclesiastical union with Rome, those who just a decade earlier celebrated victory became subject of persecution. In particular, this change in policy could have been the reason for sending Constantine II of Kiev to Rus', if one is to understand this appointment as an honorary exile. Since 1170s the situation in the Oecumenical patriarchate changed yet again, and the influence of the former ecclesiastical party fades into history.