Some of the simplest modifications to general relativity involve the coupling of additional scalar fields to the scalar curvature. By making a Weyl rescaling of the metric, these theories can be mapped to Einstein gravity with the additional scalar fields instead being coupled universally to matter. The resulting couplings to matter give rise to scalar fifth forces, which can evade the stringent constraints from local tests of gravity by means of so-called screening mechanisms. In this talk, we derive evolution equations for the matrix elements of the reduced density operator of a toy matter sector by means of the Feynman-Vernon influence functional. In particular, we employ a novel approach akin to the LSZ reduction more familiar to scattering-matrix theory. The resulting equations allow the analysis, for instance, of decoherence induced in atom-interferometry experiments by these classes of modified theories of gravity.
Average distance between particles of dust in dusty plasma crystals is sensitive to the temperature of neutral atoms in a glow discharge plasma. In some experiments a significant decrease of average inter-particle distance after cooling to low temperatures is observed: the distance at 100 K is up to 4 times less than at 300 K. In this work dusty plasma system is studied by the method of numerical solving of Newton equations which is similar to the method of molecular dynamics. It is shown that the model of dusty plasma interaction including only the Debye potential and electrostatic parabolic trap may be not enough to explain this effect. Adding ion shadowing potential to this model increases the difference between the values of inter-particle distance at 100 and 300 K by 2–3 times. Comparison of theoretical results with experiments of other groups shows that some of the experimental points may be well approximated by this model.
We researched the relation between deposition and ultra-thin VN films parameters. To conduct the experimental study we varied substrate temperature, Ar and N2 partial pressures and deposition rate. The study allowed us to obtain the films with close to the bulk values transition temperatures and implement such samples in order to fabricate superconducting single-photon detectors
A well known connection between first-passage probability of random walk and distribution of electrical potential described by Laplace equation is studied. We simulate random walk in the plane numerically as a discrete time process with fixed step length. We measure first-passage probability to touch the absorbing sphere of radius R in 2D. We found a regular deviation of the first-passage probability from the exact function, which we attribute to the finiteness of the random walk step.
A theoretical model describing the spontaneous magnetization of a ferromagnetic semiconductor (InMn)As film in the presence of an external electric field directed across the film is considered. It is assumed that the ions of a manganese impurity with spin 5/2 are acceptors, have a uniform spatial distribution inside the semiconductor, and do not change their position under the action of an external field. The motion of holes with spin ½ changes their spatial distribution under the action of the field. The exchange interaction between manganese ions and holes allows the formation of magnetization that is non-uniform across the film thickness.
In particular, the existence of a piecewise continuous solution describing the presence of a phase transition boundary for magnetization inside a ferromagnetic semiconductor film is shown.
Simulation of the entangled (Bell) states generation of two qubits by using of unipolar picoseconds pulses was performed. As an example, a system of two coupled superconducting flux qubits interacting with fluxons that integrated with a Josephson transmission line has been considered. The influence of the pulse shape and quantum noise on the accuracy of the Bell states initialization and the way to control of nonlocal entangled states are discussed.
We modeled and fabricated integrated optical Bragg waveguides on a silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4) platform. These waveguides would serve as efficient notch-filters with the desired characteristics. Transmission spectra of the fabricated integrated notch filters have been measured and attenuation at the desired wavelength of 1550 nm down to-43 dB was observed. Performance of the filters has been studied depending on different parameters, such as pitch, filling factor, and height of teeth of the Bragg grating.
We present results on integration of two major GPGPU APIs with reactor-based event processing model in C++ that utilizes coroutines. With current lack of universally usable GPGPU programming interface that gives optimal performance and debates about the style of implementing asynchronous computing in C++, we present a working implementation that allows a uniform and seamless approach to writing C++ code with continuations that allow processing on CPUs or CUDA/OpenCL accelerators. Performance results are provided that show, if corner cases are avoided, this approach has negligible performance cost on latency.
We investigate geometrical aspects of a spatial evolutionary game. The game is based on the Prisoner's dilemma. We analyze the geometrical structure of the space distribution of cooperators and defectors in the steady-state regime of evolution. We develop algorithm for the identification of the interfaces between clusters of cooperators and defectors, and measure fractal properties of the interfaces.
The complete analysis of I-V characteristics and set of basical parameters (Voc, Jsc, Idark, Pmax, η) for betavoltaic silicon batteries under Nickel-63 irradiation in temperature range 213-330 K is carried out using universal physical TCAD model. The standard TCAD optical generation model was adopted for simulation of electron-hole generation for beta particles irradiation. The pn-junction diode energy converters with real Gaussian doping profiles are considered instead of devices with abrupt profiles which were used in all previous works. The simulated current-voltage characteristics of the 63Ni-Si betavoltaic elements are in good agreement with the measured characteristics in the whole of temperature range.
We present development of large active area superconducting single-photon detectors well coupled with standard 50 µm-core multi-mode fiber. The sensitive area of the SSPD is patterned using the photon-number-resolving design and occupies an area of 40×40 µm2 . Using this approach, we have obtained excellent specifications: system detection efficiency of 47% measured using a 900 nm laser and low dark count rate of 100 cps. The main advantages of the approach presented are a very short dead time of the detector of 22 ns and FWHM jitter value of about 130 ps.
© Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. Data quality monitoring, DQM, is crucial in a high-energy physics experiment to ensure the correct functioning of the experimental apparatus during the data taking. DQM at LHCb is carried out in two phases. The first one is performed on-site, in real time, using unprocessed data directly from the LHCb detector, while the second, also performed on-site, requires the reconstruction of the data selected by the LHCb trigger system and occurs later. For the LHC Run II data taking the LHCb collaboration has re-engineered the DQM protocols and the DQM graphical interface, moving the latter to a web-based monitoring system, called Monet, thus allowing researchers to perform the second phase off-site. In order to support the operator's task, Monet is also equipped with an automated, fully configurable alarm system, thus allowing its use not only for DQM purposes, but also to track and assess the quality of LHCb software and simulation over time.
The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.
The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.
Spin-gap magnet (C7H10N)2Cu(1-x)ZnxBr4 (DIMPY) is an example of a strongleg spin ladder. We report here the results of the ESR study of pure and diamagnetically diluted DIMPY. ESR study of the pure system (x=0) revealed that the spin dynamics of DIMPY is a ected by uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. We observe narrowing of the ESR absorption line in diamagnetically diluted DIMPY pointing to suppression of DM channel of spin relaxation by doping.
Reconstruction and identification of particles in calorimeters of modern High Energy Physics experiments is a complicated task. Solutions are usually driven by a priori knowledge about expected properties of reconstructed objects. Such an approach is also used to distinguish single photons in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the LHCb detector at the LHC from overlapping photons produced from decays of high momentum π 0. We studied an alternative solution based on first principles. This approach applies neural networks and classifier based on gradient boosting method to primary calorimeter information, that is energies collected in individual cells of the energy cluster. Mutial application of this methods allows to improve separation performance based on Monte Carlo data analysis. Receiver operating characteristic score of classifier increases from 0.81 to 0.95, that means reducing primary photons fake rate by factor of two or more.
One of the most important aspects of data analysis at the LHC experiments is the particle identification (PID). In LHCb, several different sub-detectors provide PID information: two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, the hadronic and electromagnetic calorimeters, and the muon chambers. To improve charged particle identification, we have developed models based on deep learning and gradient boosting. The new approaches, tested on simulated samples, provide higher identification performances than the current solution for all charged particle types. It is also desirable to achieve a flat dependency of efficiencies from spectator variables such as particle momentum, in order to reduce systematic uncertainties in the physics results. For this purpose, models that improve the flatness property for efficiencies have also been developed. This paper presents this new approach and its performance.
Traces of electro-magnetic showers in the neutrino experiments may be considered as signals of dark-matter particles. For example, SHiP experiment is going to use emulsion film detectors similar to the ones designed for OPERA experiment from dark matter search. The goal of this research is to develop an algorithm that can identify traces of electro-magnetic showers in particle detectors, so it would be possible to analyse and compare various dark matter hypothesis. Both real data and signal simulation samples for this research come from OPERA experiment. Also we've used OPERA algorithm for electromagnetic showers identification as a baseline. Although in this research we've used no hints about shower origin.
Reconstruction and identification in calorimeters of modern High Energy Physics experiments is a complicated task. Solutions are usually driven by a priori knowledge about expected properties of reconstructed objects. Such an approach is also used to distinguish single photons in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the LHCb detector on LHC from overlapping photons produced from high momentum pi0 decays. We studied an alternative solution based on applying machine learning techniques to primary calorimeter information, that are energies collected in individual cells around the energy cluster. Constructing such a discriminator from “first principles” allowed improve separation performance from 80% to 93%, that means reducing primary photons fake rate by factor of two. In presentation we discuss different approaches to the problem, architecture of the classifier, its optimization, and compare performance of the ML approach with classical one.
We report on comparative study of magnetic phase diagram and critical current of the hole- and electron-doped BaFe2As2 single crystals with close values of superconducting critical temperature, Tc, (slightly underdoped Ba0.64K0.36Fe2As2 with Tc=25K and optimally doped BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 with Tc=20K) obtained from measurements of the temperature dependence of ac-susceptibility and isothermal irreversible magnetization loops, M(H), in magnetic fields parallel to the c-axis of the crystal. From ac-susceptibility measurements we get estimation of a slope of the upper critical eld, Hc2, in dependence on temperature, dHc2/dT =- 4.2T/K for BaFe1:9Ni0:1As2 single crystal and dHc2/dT =-1.75T/K for Ba0.64K0.36Fe2As2 sample that in accordance with Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (WHH) model gives Hc2(0) = 0.69Tc((dHc2)/dT) = 56T for BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 sample and lower value of Hc2(0) = 31T for Ba0.64K0.36Fe2As2 crystal. However, obtained from M(H) measurements temperature dependence of the irreversibility field, Hirr(T), for BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 crystal located below the one for Ba0.64K0.36Fe2As2 crystal. Furthermore, at T=4.2K and higher temperatures our results for critical current density, Jc, calculated from M(H) curves clearly show slower reduction of Jc with increasing field for even underdoped Ba0.64K0.36Fe2As2 sample compared to optimally doped BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 crystal demonstrating higher capacity of K-doped 122 compounds for production of superconducting cables and wires with high critical current in strong magnetic fields.
The work presents a study of manganese-doped copper metaborate (Cu, Mn) B2O4 using optical spectroscopy. The temperature of the antiferromagnetic phase transition T-N = 19 K has been defined according to the absorption spectra. Polarization studies (Cu, Mn) B2O4 in isotropic ab-plane show the presence of linear antiferromagnetic dichroism in the magnetically ordered state previously observed in pure copper metaborate CuB2O4. This measurement allows to find the magnetic phase transition into an elliptical structure at the temperature T* = 7.0 K.