The article attempts to analyze the current situation in training scientific and pedagogical personnel, as well as certain reasons for the low indicators of candidate-of-sciences theses defended in recent years. There are analyzed the state and dynamics of the system of postgraduate training in the post-Soviet period, including changes that came into force in 2013 and 2014 – those of assigning an educational status to postgraduate studies and of increasing requirements imposed on applicants of academic degrees. It is discussed how these changes fit the global context of postgraduate education development, whether they can be considered an explanation for the decrease of theses defences. The article proves that the negative trends observed today in the sphere of scientific and pedagogical personnel training are determined by the processes occurring in higher education and science in the post-Soviet period and by the problems arisen as a result of these processes. The empirical base of the research is a survey of 1,866 graduate students in 11 Russian universities participating in Project 5–100, as well as semi-structured interviews with 20 graduate students and 11 university staff responsible for the implementation of graduate programmes. The key problems of the Russian postgraduate studies identified on the basis of the empirical study are the following: (1) poor quality of enrollment; (2) poor quality of scientific advisory; (3) insufficient financial support of postgraduates. The article suggests possible steps to overcome these problems.
The presented article belongs to the research categories, thus, is the result of research conducted by the authors, as well as the interpretation of the identified factors influencing the satisfaction of students participating in international academic mobility. In the study, the issues of the effectiveness of internationalization of education in Russian universities are provided by giving students the opportunity to participate in international mobility programs. The problems of internationalization are practical, since now this process is one of the prior directions in the development of education. In the course of this work, a study was conducted of the views of Russian students on the level and quality of education in the programs of international academic mobility, and the main result of the work was to identify the most significant factors affecting the choice of high school students for mobility, which were combined by the authors of the article in a set of recommendations to the leading Russian. universities when choosing partner universities. The practical part includes an expert interview of students (14 people) participating in mobility programs to identify criteria for their satisfaction with this experience, which, together with the factors identified as a result of analyzing theoretical work, served as the basis for the compilation of a survey on academic mobility, which then 148 students passed. Thus, the following significant components of the effective passage of the program were identified: a high level of adaptation and awareness of foreign students at the host university, high professionalism of teachers, moderation of expenses, the availability of scholarships, provision of team project work to establish relationships with fellow students. The leading criteria for the selection of foreign universities by students were determined: established partnerships between sending and receiving universities, the attractiveness of the country of the program, the opportunity to practice rare foreign languages with their native speakers. As a research perspective, it can be proposed to establish differences in the factors influencing the choice of Western or Eastern universities - partners.
In the current educational landscape, international accreditations are becoming an increasingly important tool of external evaluation of quality. Academia has ambivalent views on the role of international accreditations and points out the perils of bureaucratization and substitution of quality of outcomes with the quality of reporting. However, preparation for international accreditations stimulates self-reflection of faculty members with respect to their activities, definition development areas and problem-solving. The article discusses the potential of international accreditations in terms of engagement management in business schools and universities. The authors consider faculty engagement as a major development concept reflected in the missions of modern universities and requirements of international accreditations. The article presents a comparative analysis of standards, criteria and processes of international accreditations in business education: AACSB, ЕFMD и AMBA and makes a linkage to international accreditations and the development of faculty engagement. The case of HSE St Petersburg School of Economics and Management is provided as an example of managing faculty engagement in the context of international accreditations.
Following publication is a conceptual article solving the problem of responses to challenges of contemporary education. Contemporary students are often characterized as incapable of holding their attention on the same object for long. Requirements of the labor market are constantly changing, requiring new competencies, skills, work styles from university alumni. Universities have to adopt to these societal changes to remain in demand. The study is aimed at review and analysis of educational approaches created to solve this problem. The approaches reviewed here have a common practice: use of agile methods of project management. Agile is a methodology of flexible project management. Its main specific features are the raise of business’s sensitivity to changes of preferences of consumers and project owners and management of communications with them, ending with perpetual improvement of the end product. Starting in computer software development, agile was quickly adopted by project management and general management on different markets. Yet there has been no such success in transition of agile to education so far. To achieve the stated aim, following methods were used: collection and analysis of scientific publications on agile in education. A part of this analysis was the comparison of conceptually important elements of these approaches to each other and the main ideas expressed in Agile Manifesto. Special attention was given to two of the most discussed approaches: agile teaching-learning methodology (ATLM) and eXtreme Pedagogy (XP). The analysis allowed for characterising the agile approaches as generally uniform and universal, i. e. they can be applied to different disciplines, despite of disciplines being aimed at theoretical or practical preparation of the students. Analysis of the values of different agile educational programs allowed for concluding that methodology can be easily adopted to solving specific educational problems in the universities practically without changing the central ideas expressed in Agile Manifesto. The originality of the data produced in the survey is based on the following characteristics: 1) the comparison of the main agile principles used in the education; 2) conceptual argumentation of possibility of using agile in university environment; 3) preparation of recommendations for the use of the agile at universities. The analysis of educational practices and approaches allowed authors to formulate following practical recommendations for creating new educational programs. First, applied educational practices should correspond to the values of adopted agile methodology. Second, the iterative interaction between the teacher and the student should become a basis of the educational practices. The result of interaction can be in the form of both student knowledge and changes in educational program.
Assessment of the quality of higher education and its management is not possible without answers to the following questions: what students should learn at the university; how the studying process at the university should be organized to achieve certain educational outcomes; what the role of students in the educational process is. Some researchers attempted to answer these questions through developing conceptual assumptions related to building student-university relationships. However, today there is no systematic analysis of such conceptual models, which makes it difficult to compare them and choose the optimal one for the university according to its external conditions and resources. The article aims to analyze the models of organization of learning at the university and building relations between teachers and students. There are presented models, conceptualizing students as consumers, active learners, and partners. We also suggest the classification of the models by two criteria: 1) students’ activity in the learning process and 2) students’ participation in decision-making and creating educational products. The paper provides understanding which principles foreign universities use to interact with students and teachers as well as to develop educational policy. The article might be practically useful for the executives of Russian universities to help them decide on the educational strategies; of no less use would it be for the teachers to make them deeper understand their relations with students.
In the transition to a new classification of the professional training areas and specialties, securing necessary professional stuffing for the socio-economic development of Russia and its regions, the issue of adjusting and coordinating the size and structure of the student admission quotas is among the most important issues. The paper presents the results of forecasting the admission quotas in the medium term, using multi-stage choice models.
Models of making a purchase decision, traditionally used in marketing, can also be applied to the choice of ap- plicants (buyers) of an educational program. Decision-making process on choosing a master’s program differs from the one of admission to a bachelor’s degree, and thus demands a special study. It is necessary to «tune» the communication and marketing tools for each stage passed by a student in the decision-making process. However, the existing research lacks a systematic approach to considering the stages of making a purchase decision as far as a master’s program choiceis concerned. This paper presents a master’s program purchase decision model, which reflects the dynamics and time frames of the decision-making process passing various stages from the first to the fourth year of the bachelor’s degree. The empirical basis of the study is the data of a 2019 survey of HSE one-to-four-year undergraduates specializing in dif- ferent spheres. To construct the model based on the study of factors and sources of information influencing the students’ choice, there were identified the time intervals of the main stages (understanding the problem, searching for information, and alternatives evaluation) of the students’ purchasing decision process. The proposed model will allow master’s pro- grams to improve their communication strategies, considering the characteristics of various stages, which should provide a systematic influence over a potential consumer within the decision-making process when choosing a master’s program.
This paper presents an investigation of factors that form students’ entrepreneurship intentions. The purpose of this paper is to estimate these factors’ influence empirically with special interest to the education. On the basis of previous research, the model of entrepreneurial intentions formation is proposed. It includes media as the factor, which was not previously regarded by other research. To estimate the model, survey data has been collected in HSE – Perm and structural modeling has been employed. As a result for the sample, education influence is not statistically significant, while media is. In order to conclude, these and other factors’ influence is regarded as the foundation of educational solutions aimed to increase entrepreneurial intentions of students.
Despite the measures taken by the Russian government to attract foreign scientists for work in Russian research organizations and universities, the level of incoming academic mobility to Russia remains extremely low. The paper provides quantitative estimates of the number of foreign researchers in different sectors of Russian science, and analyzes the attitude to the experience of their involvement on the part of the leaders of academic organizations. The work is based on the data of the Federal system for monitoring the performance of scientific organizations, as well as interview data with more than one hundred heads of Russian universities and research organizations.
The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data demonstrates that for Russian organizations, recruitment of foreign scientists is not a usual and widespread practice, and is often considered as a difficult task with non-obvious benefits. This practice differs in its scope and implementations across the R&D sectors. The internationalization process is most active in universities, which are supported by the governmental measures developed specifically for these purposes. Based on the identified barriers, the paper offers several recommendations to increase the involvement of foreign researchers, as this can significantly contribute to the promotion of the country’s integration into the world science.
The article presents a systematic review of theoretical and methodological approaches to the conceptualization and empirical study of doctoral students’ supervision. Three approaches (mentoring, doctoral student-centered, and en- vironmental) are distinguished depending on the main responsibility for the result. The mentoring approach attributes the responsibility for the result to the supervisor. This approach is generally associated with the so-called «apprentice model», which understands the doctoral student as a «neophyte» introduced to the academic world by the supervisor. The doctoral student-centered approach is characterized by imposing the responsibility mainly on the doctoral student. The article presents a systematic review of theoretical and methodological approaches to the conceptualization and empirical study of doctoral students’ supervision. Three approaches (mentoring, doctoral student-centered, and environmental) are distinguished depending on the main responsibility for the result. The mentoring approach attributes the responsibility for the result to the supervisor. This approach is generally associated with the so-called «apprentice model», which understands the doctoral student as a «neophyte» introduced to the academic world by the supervisor. The doctoral student-centered approach is characterized by imposing the responsibility mainly on the doctoral student.
This article considers the content, the instruments and the procedural aspects of innovative organizational forms of teaching at the HSE in the context of the course structure, the study scheduling, the quality assurance of student performance and training (as assessed by the academic staff and the students). The analysis of innovation-related problems and the perspectives of the development of such new forms are also outlined.
the article is devoted to the issue of provision of regional systems of higher education with public funding per students, how much the current system of distribution of public funding corresponds to demographic trends and the forecast of the number of potential students. The forecast of the population at the age group of 17-21 years showed that starting from 2019, the Russian higher education system will be subject of increased pressure from applicants. This is caused by the expiration of “demographic hole” of the 1990s. The current guarantee of financial support for higher education at the expense of public funds (at least 800 students for every 10,000 people from the age group of 17-30 years old) can be carried out until 2024 without increasing the volume of public funding. However, the implementation of this standard is provided only by reducing the age cohort of 25-30 years. The ratio of the predicted values of the number of potential applicants and the importance of demand for regional higher education systems allowed us to identify the donor regions, the deficit regions and the recipient regions. An analysis of the current distribution of public funded places between regions of Russia made it possible to identify territorial imbalances that negatively affect the ability of school graduates to receive higher education free of charge in their home region.
This article studies main principles of the development of the system, which aims at reproduction of the research and development stuff of the top qualification and modernization of its attestation.
The article is aimed at describing the main trends in the legislative support of leading higher edicational institutions in this country. It is claimed that the development of the Russian legal system pursues harmonization of national and international legal approaches.
Labor market trends estimation shows that there is an increasing number of professions in which universal competencies are valued, including critical thinking. This paper presents a theoretical framework, which makes it possible to assess the organizational and pedagogical conditions for the development of critical thinking, and analyzes these conditions in Russian universities. To collect data, we used the method of semi-structured interviews with teachers (18 people), with representatives of the administration (10 people) of Russian universities, and with one of the authors of Federal State Standards for Higher Education (current version). The results show that today in Russia, despite the requirements of the standards, not all universities have conditions for the development of critical thinking among all students. Three types of universities can be distinguished: 1) universities that create conditions for the development of critical thinking among all students; 2) universities whose conditions allow to develop of critical thinking only for individual students; 3) universities that do not create conditions for the development of students’ critical thinking at all.
The research article is aimed at measuring changes in Russian universities’ resourcing. Based on the resource stratification theory, it states the consistent patterns of transformation of resource-based institutional stratification in the Russian higher education system. The analysis considers several elements of the resource base: financing, students’ knowledge quality, professors and teachers’ qualification. Stratification implies grouping objects within a system of resources of similar quantity and quality. That is why there has been applied a cluster analysis for measuring universities’ grouping. The data for the research were taken from the Higher Education Institutions’ Monitoring of Performance (Ministry of Education). To measure the changes in resourcing, there has been carried out cluster analysis on two datasets, which characterize universities in 2012 and 2016. The transitions of universities from one cluster to another and certain characteristics of clusters allowed us to make a conclusion on the resource stratification getting fixed and on the increasing gap among clusters. In other words, the research has shown that the highly-resourced universities hold, or even strengthen their positions. At the same time, the medium and lowly-resourced universities also tend to fix their position in the system of resources allocation. The fact that the resourcing gap between different groups of universities is increasing makes it possible to hypothesize that the process of resource stratification fixation will continue. The article, therefore, is the first attempt at analyzing resource stratification in dynamics. The results of the research shall be useful for subsequent studies of institutional differentiation in higher education. In addition, the research can affect the discourse about various policy measures and their effects on higher education system. The results of the research also have significant practical implications, as they can be considered an important context for designing public management mechanisms in Russian higher education.