The literature repeatedly stresses the role of knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) as a provider of knowledge and information to other businesses and organizations. Thus, KIBS are increasingly considered to be the key for regional development at the age of knowledge economy. Nevertheless, few existing studies are dealing with questions of the KIBS sector extension in Russia using micro firm data. This paper presents an analysis of the spatial distribution of KIBS across Russian regions and focuses on the factors determining market extension of KIBS. The study is founded on the unique empirical base derived from the results of mass surveys of more than 650 Russian suppliers of KIBS. Comparative analysis of central and peripheral groups of regions was also conducted. At the first step of investigation it is detected, that Russian KIBS companies are characterized by high concentration in large urban areas due to the presence of more developed infrastructure, higher human capital development, proximity to the large customer, etc. However, companies in the KIBS sector have the potential for development (new knowledge, experience) in collaboration with agents located in other regions. It is established that index of interregional interaction intensity is higher for KIBS producers from peripheral regions. At the next stage of this research six variables were considered: size, experience, service standardization, quality of personnel, personnel costs for a company, and spatial proximity. Our results confirm that four of these variables, but not quality of personnel and personnel costs for a company, correlate with the market extension of KIBS in Russia. It is recognized that spatial proximity is an important factor for both central and peripheral suppliers of KIBS. This paper may be of interest to researchers focusing on the spatial distribution of the elements pertinent to the knowledge economy in Russia. It is also relevant for regional authorities, because it can help them to assess the innovative development capacity of their regions.
The purpose of this paper is to identify if the existing branding approaches include new branding functions generated in a result of the recent years` trends. The investigation of the peculiarities of the existing concepts is in line with the current trends in branding theory concerning its func- tional side. Over the past few years the understanding of brands, preconditions of their creation and management has changed significantly. The trends of the XXI century, such as globalization, development and spread of digital technologies, emergence of new communication channels and an increasing role of all kinds of stakeholders in the process of creation and brand management have made dramatic changes in the branding sphere. The appearance of the highlighted circum- stances resulted in the formation of new branding functions. But according to the previous re- search there are only two streams in theoretical approaches to branding. They are dual division of branding approaches and four paradigms of brand management.
The study provides the analysis of the main research on branding, published in peer-re- viewed academic journals on management and marketing. This paper sheds the light upon the functionality generated in branding as a result of the recent years’ trends and also identifies the main functions of branding formed during the period from the moment when branding was separated as an independent scientific approach till the XXI century. On the basis of Russian and foreign studies the paper identifies specific features of both dual division of branding approaches and the theory of four brand management paradigms.
The research results in a new kind of division that emphasizes different branding approach- es. The concept is formed by combining the dual division of the branding approaches and the hybrid approach proposed by this study. The approach allows to include new functions of brand- ing generated in the resent years in the classification. The paper provides researchers and prac- titioners with the systematization of existing knowledge on branding and with understanding of what should be done by a company while managing brands in the digital age.
This article focuses on professionalism and professional development of public service employees (civil ones). The goal of the study was to examine professional motivation of these employees and to carry out an empirical study of professional attitudes of Federal Tax Service (FTS) executives in the Russian Federation. Sociological approach (based on management sociology) and concepts of new public management, public service motivation and achievement motivation were used in the study. It is shown that professionalism of the employees is formed by virtue of their professional attitudes and professional achievements motivation. It is emphasized in management, that it is necessary to find out and take into consideration professional attitudes defining an employee’s willingness to professional development, and efforts he/she applies. The study reveals the structure and main types of professional attitudes of managers — Federal Tax Service executives in Russia. The results of gender analysis of the professional attitudes of the managers are presented as well.
The formal survey method (Work Test) was used to identify professional attitudes of the heads of tax offices. The survey involved 90 heads of tax offices from different regions of Russia. It was found out that the dominating attitudes in the structure of professional attitudes of the heads of tax offices are those aimed at professional and qualification development and creative type of work. The dominating type of the executives surveyed is that of "experts-creators", which means a strong focus on professional development, creative type of work, as well as internal work motivation. The research did not confirm the hypothesis that the attitudes of the career growth and algorithmic type of work (doers) dominate in the structure of professional attitudes of the tax office executives. The gender analysis of the data obtained showed that female executives dominate among tax offices executives. Selective data do not give grounds to reject the hypothesis that female heads are more focused on professional and qualification development and creative type of work than male ones; however, this dependence is not of any significance. Recommendations of how to implement the obtained results for human resource professionals of the Federal Tax Service in Russia are offered. The study contributes to the development of new public management, public service motivation, (issues of public service employees’ professional development motivation and management), as well as to the testing of the method of finding out professional attitudes of the employees indicated. The study is of practical significance for strategic planning and management of public service employees’ professional development and implementation of the Concept of Personnel Policy of the Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation.
The purpose of this paper is to broaden current view of customer orientation by exploring the specific forms of customer orientation in the Russian market. The investigation of the particularities of the customer orientation in Russia is in line with the current trends in marketing theory and instrument development and their adaptation to emerging markets. The new complex scale to measure the customer orientation consisting of 24 indicators was adopted from the different customer orientation scales used in the developed markets. Then a quantitative survey based on an adopted complex questionnaire was conducted. The research sample includes 313 managers from a cross-sectional sample of the Russian companies from various regions. The sample includes both b2b and b2c companies producing both products and services. The article includes a factor and cluster analysis that shows that forms of customer orientation are common for the Russian market. Empirical results of the cluster analysis shows that some specific forms of customer orientation are widely found in emerging Russian market and the characteristics of the customer orientation differ dramatically from those on developed markets. Research limitations include the limitations of the quantitative method approach. The sample of 313 companies cannot be representative for the whole general population of the Russian companies. Also mixed-method approach can be applied to investigate the specifics of the customer orientation of the Russian companies in details. The limited amount of research focused on customer orientation in the Russian market outlines a poor level of marketing development of the Russian companies. This paper sheds the light to the specifics of customer orientation in the Russian context. The cluster analysis shows that some specific forms of customer orientation are widely found in emerging Russian market. The paper provides researchers and practitioners with the insights into customer orientation specifics existing in the Russian market. This knowledge can be also helpful for foreign companies entering the Russian market. Although considerable research has been devoted to marketing in developed markets, little attention has been paid to marketing in emerging markets. Previous research has shown that customer orientation concept is not well-studied in the context of the Russian market. The complex scale was tested for the first time in the Russian market. The analysis shows that some specific forms of customer orientation are widely found in emerging Russian market and the characteristics of the customer orientation differ dramatically from those on developed markets.
The article raises the question of management of risks of stakeholder pressure in the system of corporate social performance. Stakeholder pressure is explained from the perspective of social amplification of risk. In accordance with the explanation provided, relevant elements of corporate social performance are determined - namely, dialog and communication forms of stakeholder interaction. The article also describes the relationship between the degree of overlap of stakeholders’ arguments by firm’s arguments and the likelihood of stakeholder pressure. Finally, the unreasonableness of the use of objective assessment of hazard in the management of stakeholder pressure is justified.
Th is article is based on the review and analysis of 147 academic publications of Russian and foreign authors which discuss the impact of various factors on talent management in organizations. Talent management is seen as the ability of an organization to attract, select, deploy, develop, and retain employees who make the most important contribution to a company’s performance. Th e article includes the classifi cations of groups of factors and analysis of relationships between factors at various levels (global, national, industry, organisational, individual) and the elements of a talent management system. Conducting a content analysis of the selected publications the authors apply a system approach to talent in its contextual version. Th e results of an analysis demonstrate a state of art in the knowledge of talent management context. External factors have a greater impact on the strategic components and practices of managing the “entrance” of talents into the organization. The most frequently mentioned organizational factor is corporate culture and corporate values that influence philosophy, attraction and selection, evaluation and retention of talents. Values of talent have turned out to be an important individual factor influencing the definition of talent in the company and all practices of talent management. The perception of these practices by the talents themselves and other employees of the organization could be of the same significant for all practices of talent management. The aspects of a contextual approach to talent management, which have not received yet the expanded coverage in the literature have been also identified. They are considered as the directions for future research.
The article focuses on the role of fundraising in the sustainable development of nongovernmental nonprofit organizations (NPOs). The key role of financial sustainability for the evaluation of sustainability of the NPO sector has been identified based on the regression analysis of quantitative data obtained by the United States Agency for International Development over some 13 years of survey. Constituent elements of financial sustainability have been described to highlight the leading role of NGO fundraising in tapping and accumulating funds from different sources for the implementation of projects and programs. The article concludes with recommendations on improving the effectiveness of tapping funds from different sources and accumulating them in NGO budgets Fundraising has been shown to have an essentially marketing nature which raises the need of improving the quality of marketing training for NPO leaders and staff.
The goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the managerial decisions in working capital management and the return on assets of Russian food companies.
Cash conversion cycle is chosen as a criterion of working capital management decisions effectiveness. The dependence of the return on assets both on cash conversion cycle and on each of its elements, and additionally, the dependence of cash conversion cycle on current ratio of companies belonging to food industry. The choice of industry is determined both by its importance for national economy and the large contribution of working capital management to the profitability growth of food companies.
The research is performed by means of regression analysis. The sample consists of 282 companies and the period of data collecting is 2009-2013.
The inverse relationship is proven between the cash conversion as a whole and the return on assets, as also between each element of cash conversion cycle (inventories, receivables, and payables) and the return on assets. This result differ from previous results (in earlier studies there was revealed a direct relationship between payables and return on assets) and could be explained by specifics of business environment where Russian companies operate. The direct relationship between cash conversion cycle and current ratio also is revealed. Also the margins for minimal and maximal cash conversion cycle are defined. Within these margins, companies are matching to the requirements of current ratio and thus, they can meet provide both the long-term and short-term managerial goals – value creation and sustainability.
The research findings can help to get deeper insight of trade policy and working capital management of Russian food companies. They also provide financial managers with information that may help them to re-consider their managerial decisions in a way that promotes better performance.
The paper considers the specifics of the industrial environment that affects financial decisions. It is important for the exploration of managerial decisions on working capital management.
The article identifies the causes of Large-Scale Negative Events and stakeholder risk concern. The author discusses CSR practices, which might seem reasonable to managers, but in reality do not exclude Large-Scale Negative Events or stakeholder risk concern. The author emphasizes on the dominant decision-making criteria and elements of organizational culture, which can also seem reasonable to managers, but do not exclude the occurrence of Large-Scale Negative Events and do not exclude the occurrence of CSR practices that increase stakeholder risk concern. During the analysis, the role of understanding of corporate social responsibility by managers is addressed.
Russian book market is one of the largest in the world in terms of new titles in print. However, this market is underexplored. There is no research dealing with an empirical demand or supply function estimation for this market. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the book demand function and to check whether this kind of demand is price and income elastic. On the basis of results retrieved, managerial recommendations are to be offered. For this purpose, the demand function for books is built and estimated both on the total sample and for particular literature genres. The peculiarity of the demand model estimation is the introduction in the model covariates indicating the book content quality such as the amount of people who gave rating on the website, average rating of the book from the website and the combined effect of these two variables. An empirical estimation of these factors influence has not been considered in the previous research yet. Model estimation was based on the data of one North-Western Federal District book retail chain. According to the estimation results, book demand is price inelastic; moreover, books are estimated to be luxury goods. The analysis of demand functions for separate genres suggests that the demand for each genre is price-insensitive. Only Russian and foreign prose, foreign fiction and poetry are luxury goods among all the genres analyzed. A foreign detective, Russian fiction and sentimental novel are normal goods, whereas Russian detective is an inferior goods. The results of the research might be of a particular interest for books retail chains and publishers