The ageing population in Russia has led to a shift from distributive pay-as-you-go financed pension system into a multi-pillar one. In 2002, individuals were given the opportunity to form and manage their individual pension funds. Since then, reforms have continued. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how the views and attitudes of working-age Russians regarding retirement have changed over a period (2005-2018). Research was done using the survey data «Monitoring of the financial behavior of Russians (2009-2018)» (NRU-HSE), «Monitoring of financial activity of population (2005)» (ZIRCON) and Initiative Study of NAFI (2007). Despite the demographic, economic, and institutional changes that have taken place, individual pension strategies have not changed for the better, fewer Russians are confident in 2018 that they will have enough money for living after retirement, the number of those who expect to receive additional income has reduced, financial retirement strategies have not become common.
The aim of current article is to cover the gap in studies of digital divide in Russia. Digital divide is a complex phenomenon describing unequal opportunities in access to Internet resources that cannot be explained only by economic affordability of the Internet or only by user’s personal choice. That is why current article considering a variety of socio-demographic factors affecting usage of the Internet. Empirical section of the research is based on repeated cross-sectional data from «Courier» database and dedicated to testing how digital divide is changing during the period of study (July 2011 — November 2013). Binary logistic regression is used as a method of analysis. The modeling shown that classic factors of digital inequality such as age, income, education, type of residence are related with probability of Internet use in general as well as probability of usage of the Internet as a source of information. It occurred that gender does not affect probability of usage of the Internet, though it is related with usage of the Internet as a source of information (it is more probable to use Internet as informational source for males). In dynamic perspective digital divide in use is decreasing, however digital divide in aims of use is increasing.
The article reviews researches on work-life balance in academy. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and organize the content of 50 academic articles. Based on selected articles, model was developed, containing three sources of discourse of work-life balance in academy: individual choice: «give a life (,) impossible (,) leave the academy», in which the problem is decided in favor of either work or personal life; double identity («good mother» and «successful professor») through the adoption of overload; minimization of administrative tasks («a waste of time») by research and teaching activities. Reforms of the higher education system, neoliberalization of universities, spread of market values led to various changes that have influenced the expansion of the discourse of work-life balance in academy. This study identifies the consequences of neoliberalism, economic rationalism, competition and entrepreneurial orientation of universities, reflected in the increasing workload of professors and their interests in finding strategies to maintain the balance between life and work. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of shaping of these strategies, the authors of analyzed researches refer to the theories of burnout, boundaries, gender inequality, interference and enrichment.
The purpose of the study is to examine how the involvement in information channels influences the trust. The author chooses the information approach towards the analysis of the phenomenon of trust as a means to overcome the lack of knowledge or uncertainty. The article highlights that trust is tightly connected to the assessment of the possible outcome, uncertainly and the amount of available information about the world. The author admits that the more people are involved in information channels, the higher the generalized trust is. The information taken from different sources makes society more understandable and transparent, and people`s behavior – more predictable; that leads to the increased level of trust.
Using the data of the fifth wave of the European Social Survey, the author constructs a model that considers information approach towards trust and a number of key variables which allow determining the pure influence of the involvement in information channels on trust. Involvement in information channels (use of Internet, reading newspapers, everyday communications) is also important along with such factors as age, years of education, subjective welfare on trust. Multilevel modeling helps to determine how the frequency of the Internet use influences the trust.
The article is concerned with reproductive intentions of young women the beginning of their career path in various bodies and agencies of state service, mainly of federal government. The article is based on 32 semi-structured in-depth interviews, conducted in 2016. Main research problem and main results consist in difficulties of choice of the point on a life path when career oriented women could optimally give birth to their child. Another problem and finding concern contradiction between stated intentions to have at least one child and the fact that almost none of the researched have any children at the age of 27—30 years, and they cannot even say with some precision when they do plan to have them. In spite of the fact that all of them lack life experience of motherhood, and despite their overall rather positive attitude to the latter, and in the condition when they feel significant social pressure of normative ideas concerning normality of motherhood in life of any woman, the participants postpone motherhood until indefinite future and, as a rule, believe that this is going to be incompatible with their present jobs with their working hours, requirements, and salary. This is mainly due to the fact that the other two norms influence them, namely, that mothering should be intense, and that «a good worker» should give all her energy to the job.
In the article, based on the empirical data of all-Russian representative studies, the problem of perception of life chances in different types of settlements in mass consciousness is analyzed. It is shown that the image of the provinces in terms of life chances available to their residents is characterized in the mass consciousness by the opportunities to create a fairly comfortable microcosm, while life in capitals, in views of Russians, gives a wider range of life opportunities associated with different types of goals. Compared with 2003, the main trend in this regard was the convergence of perception of the opportunities that exist in capitals and provinces, i.e. a decrease in the acuity of settlement inequality in mass consciousness. The belief in more advantageous life in capitals in terms of the life opportunities is clearly dominant among Russians, and the residents of the capitals are more satisfied with various aspects of their life and higher assess the existing life chances (which go beyond material well-being and consumption). However, the degree of realization of their own life plans is lower for the capital residents than for residents of the provinces. Moreover, life in capitals is associated not only with a wider space of life opportunities, but also with the greater prevalence of certain risks associated with non-monetary aspects of life.
Abstract. The paper aims to examine the privately owned housing as an additional source of income for the retired persons. Several retirees’ strategies are considered by the authors: 1) rooms for rent (sharing property), 2) selling apartment to get a smaller or a cheaper one, 3) apartment for rent with the owner’s move to dacha, and 4) reverse mortgage. As the house rent is part of informal economy in Russia, the authors applied available circumstantial characteristics (availability of living space, number of rooms per person, dacha ownership, conveniences). Data of real estate forums, special property websites and statistical data (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — HSE and Comprehensive Monitoring of Living Conditions) were used. The analysis shows that those retired persons who are lonely are the ones who have adequate housing. Many of them have more than one room per one person and an opportunity to offer a room for rent; they are owners of the living space with amenities and can sell their house. Senior citizens who live alone and do not work and their families can offer their apartment for rent as they have their dachas. Reverse mortgage is rare, and the demand for that is rather low. Therefore, those retired persons who are lonely and not working are more likely to have the potential to increase their income using their housing.
The author provides an analysis of the public sphere and public scandal as challenges for future research in communicative situations of transgression of habitual norms and forms of discourse on disability. The studied cases of public scandals illustrate the key changes in forms and content of discussions about disability within the given period (2008—2017) and also serve as а «snapshot» of possible combinations of traditional and online media when there is informational surge around the discussed norms of publicness. Based on theoretical resources and comparative analysis of cases, the author proposes a typology of disability-related public scandals and explains possible public reaction to possible ethical problems. The author’s analytical approach can be used in disability studies as well as studies related to media, technological and social functions of public scandals.
Drawing on the all-Russia representative survey data, the given paper aims to study public demand of Russians for the state cooperation to solve their problems in three different fields, as of workfare policies, social investment, and social support. Active labour market policies are mostly demanded by youth that is struggling to access good jobs. Demands for active social support are likely to root in personal situations, particularly, those requiring solving financial and housing issues, which these Russians are not able to tackle themselves, thus demanding transfers from the state.Demands for active social investment policies are more are the most heterogeneous. Independence from the state is typical for the most prosperous part of the population who do not face any serious problems. To meet these diverse demands, the government should differentiate and prioritise the means of social policy.
The practices of multi-actor child care is described and analyzed in the article. The empirical base is survey of Muscovites with children of 3 to 5 years old in November 2012. The results of the research have showed the significance of the kindergarten services as the institutional service that allowed parents to continue their professional careers. Along with that, the survey has revealed unequal distribution of child-care duties between mothers and fathers. According to opinions of parents, mothers are perceived five times as more involved into child-care than fathers. It is adjusted to the fact of different strategies of job search and placement. Mothers find a job with working hours that is in accordance with preschool schedule, fathers don’t taking into account this point. The policy of compensation for families which children don’t attend the kindergarten is discussed in the conclusion.
The article is devoted to the origin and development of sociological services of the biggest Russian TV companies in the 1990s and early 2000s. The audience measurement, recently referred to as public opinion studies, has always been an important source of information to assess both the performance of the editorial staff and the mood of the audience. Sociological services run by major TV channels in the 1990s carried a lot of weight in the company’s structure. The Author’s study aims at filling the gaps in the history of the development of sociological services. The data have biographical value; most of information obtained during the interviews with the head of the Petersburg Russian State Company for Television and Radio Broadcasting has not been published before. They shed light on various facts of the history of the weighting methods in Russia. In particular, they help to describe in detail the work of the Channel Five sociological service. The author also describes the milestones in the history of media measurement in Russia.
The article discusses Russian nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in terms of their innovativeness. Based on the empirical data we describe the scope of innovativeness of the Russian nonprofit organizations (48 % of the surveyed NGOs have implemented innovations), and identify the most innovative and the least innovative areas of NGOs’ functioning. We analyze correlations of its management characteristics and innovativeness in five spheres: relations with the external environment, relations with the internal stakeholders, organization’s culture, leadership, management of processes and resources. We have identified that such characteristics as participation of various external stakeholders in decision making, participation of the organization in the professional networks; number of employees, number of volunteers, inclusion of employees in decision making; frequency of meetings of the board; organization’s orientation towards innovativeness; sufficiency of funds for implementing innovations, existence of the strategic plan positively correlate with the level of innovativeness. Negative correlation is with the number of years of the leader’s length of service. Number of the members of the board seems not to be related to innovativeness of the Russian NGOs.
The article reviews the results of changing the survey mode from PAPI (paper and pencil interviewing) to CAPI (computer assisted personal interviewing) in some panel household surveys in different countries. Based on a number of experimental and non-experimental studies within the panel household surveys, we explored the effect of using CAPI on data collection process as a whole and data quality, in particularly. We showed that CAPI has a number of advantages over PAPI. Using of CAPI leads to the reduction of the fieldwork duration. In addition, CAPI is positively perceived by respondents and interviewers, does not have a negative effect on response rates and panel attrition rates. Moreover, it reduces missing data. At the same time, some studies suggest that using CAPI may lead to the increase of measurement error in sensitive and open-ended questions. Researchers should also take into consideration some technical and practical issues related to programming, training and selection of interviewers, as well as the choice of hardware and software used in CAPI.
In the year of 2018, the Internet is no more a wholesome phenomenon, but when recognised as a subject of studies, becomes similar to a teenager having already gained a certain independence. It understands its communication with other people but still wants to change the whole interaction system in order to nd its own place. At least, this is exactly the impression we receive: the impres sion of an ambitious object of study, of a misunderstood one. In this issue we offer you an occasion to think about different scenarios of the relationship between studies on the Internet and classic social sciences approaches. We do not focus on methodological issues, but on the Internet in its being an object of studies and a scienti c problem. We focus on studies on the Internet that accumulate knowlege about the Internet as a social phenomenon, being also an internation al and indisciplinar area of research. So cial sciences are represented in this case by sociology and anthropology, as well as other ones such as mediastudies, stud ies on sciences and technologies (STS), social geography etc.