The belief that survey research instruments mediating communication between an interviewer and a respondent influence the quality of data obtained in the process of survey interview, has become a conventional wisdom long ago. However, among various methods of pre-testing, evaluating survey instruments’ quality and revealing the potential sources of measurement bias, the methods of quantitative estimation of cognitive load experienced by interviewers or respondents during the interview are still lacking. In a case of personal interview as a means of survey data collection, physical and, to a much greater extent, mental efforts are invested by both respondents and interviewers. In the situation when a questionnaire is filled up by an interviewer it is the latter who primarily has to allocate limited individual resources of attention, memory, visual and motor control, active listening and interpretation in order to minimize misunderstandings of the question on the respondent’s side and errors of the answers’ fixation on interviewer's own side. Successfully performing such multiple tasks demands considerable metacognitive and self-regulatory skills from the interviewer. Interviewers’ multitasking in the process of conducting an interview, including tasks of maintaining communication with a respondent, controlling over one’s own actions of filling-in the questionnaire and over the technical part of the process, fixation of possible disturbances during the interview and so on, may lead to depletion of available cognitive resources and to interviewer’s cognitive overload. This can result in the deterioration of data quality. However, sociologists’ attention to the measurement of cognitive load in the process of interview has been minimal so far. The article presents results of an analytical review of traditional and modern approaches to the measurement of the cognitive load, employed in such disciplinary fields as cognitive science, ergonomics, research on the processes of education and problem-solving, etc. The authors substantiate the possibility of employment of some subjective, objective and behavioral measures of cognitive load for the purposes of quantitative evaluation and optimization of interviewer’s (and, in prospect, respondent’s) cognitive load, which arises during the interview process. We also outline the near perspectives and expected benefits of the development of an integral methodological approach to the employment of multiple indicators of cognitive load in the surveys of various types. Keywords: interview-evoked cognitive load; subjective measures of cognititve load, objective and behavioral measures of cognitive load, task-evoked pupillary response, subjective cognitive load measurement scales, survey data quality
The article deals with the analysis of St Petersburg middle-class parents’ perception of urban space. The city is presented as a space of conflict of different actors fighting to define their place in the city, its optimal use and the boundaries between child and adult spaces. The paper is based on the empirical research results (analysis of interviews with parents and official documents) and describes the range and content of the activities of actors which set the configuration of the urban space for children (state, market and parents). The opinion of parents as active citizens about different initiatives of city administration and business community is analyzed. Conflicts about children’s playgrounds are cited as examples of daily urban confrontations. The author concludes that middle-class parents’ requirements toward urban spaces for children and new-type playground arrangement are rather specific.
The paper aims at assessing the extent to which Moscow residents can keep city silence - an urban life phenomenon describing the passivity of people and their unwillingness to come together for joint actions. The paper is based on the data of the civilc society monitoring which is carried out by the Centere for Studies of Civil Society and the Non-Pprofit Sector of the National Research University Higher School of Economics. The level of involvement of the Moscow residents in offline and online civil society practices are considered in the article. The results of the surveys conducted among Moscow residents are compared with the all-Russian data including different types of settlements. The authors conclude that there are no grounds to describe for characterising the public activism of the Muscovites as a “city silence”. However, further efforts to create favourable and accessible environment for manifesting social activism as a resource of urban development are needed.
The article deals with the problems of federal state radio broad-casting on the case of radio stations “Radio Rossii” and “Mayak”, which are the structural units of the all-Russian state television and radio broadcasting company (VGTRK). The accumulated research data allow us to see that radio stations owned by VGTRK over the past 20 years have lost a leading position in Russia. The share of the audience at the national level in the period from 1996 to 2018 decreased from 27% to 5.7% for “Radio Rossii” station, and from 26% to 3.1% for “Mayak” station. And if in 1996, two stations took, respectively, was in the 1st and 2nd place in the rating of the share of the audience, in 2018, "Radio Rossii" station was only in the 6th place and "Mayak" station in the 12th. The main reason for this downfall is the lack of attention to the technical distribution of the signal. In 1996, the population of Russia listened to the radio mainly on wired radio, medium and long wave receivers. In 2018, the vast majority of Russian audience listened to the radio on the FM band, where state-owned stations were represented poorly in comparison with leading commercial stations. Only 12% of the Russian population can receive "Radio Rossii" and "Mayak" stations on wired radio at the moment, however, that the broadcasting on long waves terminated. Loss of the audience accompanied by a weakening of the brand power of radio stations. It is especially evident for "Radio Rossii" station - only 8.3% of respondents have spontaneous knowledge of this radio station in 2018 (data of the "Mediascope" research company). In order to regain the leading position, the state radio stations must ensure a 100% presence in the FM broadcasting at least in large and medium-sized cities, but, first of all, in Moscow. If this is not done in the near future, the audience rates will continue to decline. The loss of audience by federal state radio stations threatens the development of social and political processes in Russia, because state media, including radio stations, ensure the constitutional right of citizens to receive information and access to cultural values, fulfill the statutory functions to cover the activities of state authorities and campaigning for candidates and political parties during election campaigns.
The ageing population in Russia has led to a shift from distributive pay-as-you-go financed pension system into a multi-pillar one. In 2002, individuals were given the opportunity to form and manage their individual pension funds. Since then, reforms have continued. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how the views and attitudes of working-age Russians regarding retirement have changed over a period (2005-2018). Research was done using the survey data «Monitoring of the financial behavior of Russians (2009-2018)» (NRU-HSE), «Monitoring of financial activity of population (2005)» (ZIRCON) and Initiative Study of NAFI (2007). Despite the demographic, economic, and institutional changes that have taken place, individual pension strategies have not changed for the better, fewer Russians are confident in 2018 that they will have enough money for living after retirement, the number of those who expect to receive additional income has reduced, financial retirement strategies have not become common.
The aim of current article is to cover the gap in studies of digital divide in Russia. Digital divide is a complex phenomenon describing unequal opportunities in access to Internet resources that cannot be explained only by economic affordability of the Internet or only by user’s personal choice. That is why current article considering a variety of socio-demographic factors affecting usage of the Internet. Empirical section of the research is based on repeated cross-sectional data from «Courier» database and dedicated to testing how digital divide is changing during the period of study (July 2011 — November 2013). Binary logistic regression is used as a method of analysis. The modeling shown that classic factors of digital inequality such as age, income, education, type of residence are related with probability of Internet use in general as well as probability of usage of the Internet as a source of information. It occurred that gender does not affect probability of usage of the Internet, though it is related with usage of the Internet as a source of information (it is more probable to use Internet as informational source for males). In dynamic perspective digital divide in use is decreasing, however digital divide in aims of use is increasing.
The article reviews researches on work-life balance in academy. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and organize the content of 50 academic articles. Based on selected articles, model was developed, containing three sources of discourse of work-life balance in academy: individual choice: «give a life (,) impossible (,) leave the academy», in which the problem is decided in favor of either work or personal life; double identity («good mother» and «successful professor») through the adoption of overload; minimization of administrative tasks («a waste of time») by research and teaching activities. Reforms of the higher education system, neoliberalization of universities, spread of market values led to various changes that have influenced the expansion of the discourse of work-life balance in academy. This study identifies the consequences of neoliberalism, economic rationalism, competition and entrepreneurial orientation of universities, reflected in the increasing workload of professors and their interests in finding strategies to maintain the balance between life and work. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of shaping of these strategies, the authors of analyzed researches refer to the theories of burnout, boundaries, gender inequality, interference and enrichment.
The purpose of the study is to examine how the involvement in information channels influences the trust. The author chooses the information approach towards the analysis of the phenomenon of trust as a means to overcome the lack of knowledge or uncertainty. The article highlights that trust is tightly connected to the assessment of the possible outcome, uncertainly and the amount of available information about the world. The author admits that the more people are involved in information channels, the higher the generalized trust is. The information taken from different sources makes society more understandable and transparent, and people`s behavior – more predictable; that leads to the increased level of trust.
Using the data of the fifth wave of the European Social Survey, the author constructs a model that considers information approach towards trust and a number of key variables which allow determining the pure influence of the involvement in information channels on trust. Involvement in information channels (use of Internet, reading newspapers, everyday communications) is also important along with such factors as age, years of education, subjective welfare on trust. Multilevel modeling helps to determine how the frequency of the Internet use influences the trust.
The article is concerned with reproductive intentions of young women the beginning of their career path in various bodies and agencies of state service, mainly of federal government. The article is based on 32 semi-structured in-depth interviews, conducted in 2016. Main research problem and main results consist in difficulties of choice of the point on a life path when career oriented women could optimally give birth to their child. Another problem and finding concern contradiction between stated intentions to have at least one child and the fact that almost none of the researched have any children at the age of 27—30 years, and they cannot even say with some precision when they do plan to have them. In spite of the fact that all of them lack life experience of motherhood, and despite their overall rather positive attitude to the latter, and in the condition when they feel significant social pressure of normative ideas concerning normality of motherhood in life of any woman, the participants postpone motherhood until indefinite future and, as a rule, believe that this is going to be incompatible with their present jobs with their working hours, requirements, and salary. This is mainly due to the fact that the other two norms influence them, namely, that mothering should be intense, and that «a good worker» should give all her energy to the job.
In the article, based on the empirical data of all-Russian representative studies, the problem of perception of life chances in different types of settlements in mass consciousness is analyzed. It is shown that the image of the provinces in terms of life chances available to their residents is characterized in the mass consciousness by the opportunities to create a fairly comfortable microcosm, while life in capitals, in views of Russians, gives a wider range of life opportunities associated with different types of goals. Compared with 2003, the main trend in this regard was the convergence of perception of the opportunities that exist in capitals and provinces, i.e. a decrease in the acuity of settlement inequality in mass consciousness. The belief in more advantageous life in capitals in terms of the life opportunities is clearly dominant among Russians, and the residents of the capitals are more satisfied with various aspects of their life and higher assess the existing life chances (which go beyond material well-being and consumption). However, the degree of realization of their own life plans is lower for the capital residents than for residents of the provinces. Moreover, life in capitals is associated not only with a wider space of life opportunities, but also with the greater prevalence of certain risks associated with non-monetary aspects of life.
Abstract. The paper aims to examine the privately owned housing as an additional source of income for the retired persons. Several retirees’ strategies are considered by the authors: 1) rooms for rent (sharing property), 2) selling apartment to get a smaller or a cheaper one, 3) apartment for rent with the owner’s move to dacha, and 4) reverse mortgage. As the house rent is part of informal economy in Russia, the authors applied available circumstantial characteristics (availability of living space, number of rooms per person, dacha ownership, conveniences). Data of real estate forums, special property websites and statistical data (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — HSE and Comprehensive Monitoring of Living Conditions) were used. The analysis shows that those retired persons who are lonely are the ones who have adequate housing. Many of them have more than one room per one person and an opportunity to offer a room for rent; they are owners of the living space with amenities and can sell their house. Senior citizens who live alone and do not work and their families can offer their apartment for rent as they have their dachas. Reverse mortgage is rare, and the demand for that is rather low. Therefore, those retired persons who are lonely and not working are more likely to have the potential to increase their income using their housing.
The author provides an analysis of the public sphere and public scandal as challenges for future research in communicative situations of transgression of habitual norms and forms of discourse on disability. The studied cases of public scandals illustrate the key changes in forms and content of discussions about disability within the given period (2008—2017) and also serve as а «snapshot» of possible combinations of traditional and online media when there is informational surge around the discussed norms of publicness. Based on theoretical resources and comparative analysis of cases, the author proposes a typology of disability-related public scandals and explains possible public reaction to possible ethical problems. The author’s analytical approach can be used in disability studies as well as studies related to media, technological and social functions of public scandals.