The article is devoted to the formation of technological addictions, criteria for their identification and diagnosis, as well as analysis of the psychological factors that contribute to their development. According to the results of comparative analysis of existing models and studies, we present ways of further development of this problem in psychology. Model of technological addictions should be based on a model of “normative” use of technology and cannot be reduced only to the “addictive potential” of technology or person. In addition, one must consider unique humans function of technology (ease, avoiding, and overcoming), which makes a virtual situation more attractive than the real life situation, and provides a transition from “normal” to pathological processes. A special topic is identification of compensatory mechanisms system that support developed forms of addictive behavior (cognitive dissonance reduction strategies, cognitive distortion of perception and evaluation).
The article aims to present experimental protocol for investigation of visual cognitive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Description of experimental design is introduced by theoretical review of visual attention, perception and visual-motor control development in children with idiopathic autism and those with Fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Research method presented in the article is based on recent studies of visual cognitive function development under normal and pathological condition. The protocol includes three experimental paradigms: “antisaccade test”, “big/ figures”, and “photos test” performed by making use of eye tracking recording. This work was supported by grant RFBR 14-06-31284
We discuss the interpretation of the concept of “learning outcomes”. Theoretical analysis widely represents the interpretations of the learning outcomes of a high school student: academic skills: understanding, application of knowledge to solve problems, synthesis, analysis and evaluation; basic skills and basic knowledge, and skills of a higher order and advanced knowledge; skills of a higher order represented as a system of critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving and written communication; wide abilities interpreted as verbal, quantitative and spatial thinking, understanding, problem solving and decision making. We conclude that each considered approach distinguishes meta-subjective skills, i.e. skills to interact with the quality of information regardless of the context. The ability to measure the meta-skills is discussed on an example of the “Collegiate learning assessment”, realized in the United States.
The present study aimed at Russian-language adaptation and validation of the Handelman’s Adolescent Apathy Inventory (AAI). The study group consists of 346 students, who are enrolled into Omsk State Technical University (OmSTU). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the measure’s one-dimensional structure. Moreover, correlation analyses provided evidence for the inventory’s convergent and divergent validity: adolescent apathy showed positive correlations with alienation from study (OSA-S) and amotivation (AMS-C) and negative correlations with intrinsic motivation for knowledge, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishments, intrinsic motivation for stimulation, intrinsic motivation for self-respect, identified regulation, introjected regulation, extrinsic regulation (AMS-C), vigor and dedication (UWES-S). In addition, inventory showed good reliability (α-Cronbach = 0,76) and temporal stability over onemonth period (mean test-retest correlation = 0,71). The present findings provide adequate support for the reliability and validity of the Russian version Adolescent Apathy Inventory.
The paper defines aggression and bullying and draws a distinction between them basing on the parameters of repetition and imbalance of power We evaluate the occurrence of both phenomena in Russia and abroad basing on recent stud- ies and analyse how family factors can affect whether the child will be involved in bullying or not and in which position: we describe the influence of structural, functional and communicative characteristics of the family system (close/dis- tant relationships between the family members, preferred communicative style, marital conflict, relationship with siblings, etc ) and the features of parent-child interaction Also, we analyse the contribution of certain social factors, such as the level of family income, parental education level etc The influence of different psychological and social characteristics of the family on the risk of the child’s victimization in school bullying is estimated for each age group (from primary schoolchildren to high school students)
This exploratory study aims to analyse the factors that influence subjective wellbeing of high school students. The purpose of the study is to formulate hypotheses about the impact of the situation of self-identification on the school students’ subjective well-being. The research is based on 14 interviews with school students in 10th and 11th grades. These interviews showed how adolescents perceive the situation of transition from the status of schoolchildren to the status of school graduates, what aspects of this transition cause anxiety and stress, and what changes in the behavior and everyday life of schoolchildren are caused by the need to make educational and life choices. The results suggest that in schools with a highly competitive environment, in which students have higher educational aspirations, the stress from self-determination and planning for the future in adolescents is higher than in schools with a less competitive environment. The obtained data place the subjective well-being of the high schoolchild in a broader context of life path design and allow to formulate a hypothesis that it is the need to solve the age-related problem of self-determination that has a decisive influence on the experiences of adolescents of this age. Understanding how well-being is related to the characteristics of this transitional stage in adolescents’ life, on the one hand, and social factors, on the other, creates the basis for further analysis: identifying risk groups of schoolchildren, studying and revising strategies to improve their well-being.
The article is devoted to the 80th anniversary of the prominent psychologist and educator - V. V. Davydov, who (together with D. B. Elkonin) has developed psychological base and pedagogical practices of the developing education. The main focus of the elaborated program was the development of theoretical thinking and the formation of readiness to thought and the ability for conceptual thought among school children. The article is an attempt to apply conceptualizations developed by V.V. Davydov to the analysis of thinking as such.The greatest attention is given to reflection and intuition.
We discuss the definition and phenomenology of direct and indirect bullying, describe the effects of bullying for all categories of participants. We discuss the most common teachers’ settings (normative, assertive, avoidant) in relation to bullying, and the ways to respond arising from these settings. We discuss mismatch in understanding the phenomenon of bullying between psychologists and educators, as well as the need to develop consistent definitions for the design of prevention programs and preventive procedures in situations of bullying in particular institution. We reveal the basic myths developed in society and aggravating bullying normalization, aggressor support and the victim's humiliation. We discuss the principles of organization of prevention system and school bullying prevention. The teachers’ possibilities to reduce the number of school bullying situations are considered. We show the necessity of a more critical and informed teachers' attitude toward bullying situations and their own response strategies.