Understanding of transitivity-intransitivity of superiority and mastery of these relations are considered. It is proved that the use of transitivity of superiority principle (if A>B and B>C then A>C) as an axiom in teaching and the use of teaching/learning materials and situations that are subject to this principle can lead to learners’ false beliefs about its universality and false conclusions about superiority in situations of comparisons of the objects being in intransitive (“rock-paper-scissors”) relations. Asymmetry of “transitive” and “intransitive” learning materials and problems in this area is noted. “Intransitive” learning materials, objects, and problems meant for compensation of this asymmetry are described.
The process of goal setting and attainment, as well as the role of their content, in the framework of psychological well-being is considered. We review of a number of Western empirical studies aimed at understanding this relationship, especially in the framework of self-determination theory (SDT). The concepts of internal and external goals are introduced. The role of universal basic needs in the process of goal-setting is highlighted. Goal contents theory is presented. The concept of goal self-concordance (K. Sheldon) is introduced as a predictive factor of both goal attainment and subjective well-being.
Two versions of Matsumoto’s DRAI (Display Rule Assessment Inventory) and Pankratova’s Russia modification of this technique are described including possible ways of the analysis of raw data. Comparison of the most general DRAI indices obtained in Russian and Azerbaijani cultures showed that (1) Azerbaijanis display their emotions less compared to Russians (both in the private and public context), (2) Azerbaijanis use various strategies to hide their true emotions and it holds to any emotion, whereas Russians display all emotions except contempt and disgust, and (3) Azerbaijanis display more negative emotions in the out-group (towards an acquaintance), whereas Russians display more negative emotions in the in-group (towards a close friend). The results correspond to the evidence about the relationship between individualism-collectivism and the level of emotional expressivity obtained in Matsumoto’s cross-cultural studies.
This article analyses the capacity of healthy patients for decision making based on the mechanism of the emotional learning (Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis). The relation of this mechanism to the perception of the emotionally significant situations in real life and the use of emotions in cognitive control is estimated. The dependence of the emotional learning on parameters of the executive functions is considered. The influence of propensity to risk and impulsiveness on the decision making is analyzed. The following methods are used: the International Game Technology (IGT), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the questionnaire “Impulsiveness 7” (I7). 95 people were involved in the study. The connection of the decision making in uncertainty which estimates with the International Game Technology (IGT), with the emotional processes is demonstrated. It is shown that the decrease of the regulatory functions, such as the inhibition of the irrelevant answers and the control of the result of their own actions, is connected to the decreasing of the capacity for decision making in uncertainty. The personal features (the interest to the complex problem solving and the focusing on the future) are connected with better decision making in uncertainty. By the persons with risk propensity the learning occurs later on the basis of emotional experience. High level of the capacity for planning and self-control is connected to the features of the emotional decision making.
In Beck's cognitive theory cognitive insight is defined as a capability to appraise and correct misinterpretations or beliefs that are inappropriate for the situation. This paper is devoted to development and validation of Russian version of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. The sample comprises 1029 subjects aged 16-17. Russian version of the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale is found to be fully consistent with English version in terms of test-retest reliability, internal consistency and factor structure. Convergent validity of the scale is supported by significant relations between cognitive insight level and severity of psychopathology, seeking social support, hardiness, and reflexivity. Regression analysis shows that regardless of the severity of psychiatric symptoms the level of cognitive insight predicts the readiness for psychotherapy.
The analytical review of development of approaches to the structure of writing and the nature of agraphia in foreign neuropsychology is presented. In the first part of the paper the early theories (Wernicke-Lichtheim’s, Leischner’s, Pitres’, Chedru-Geschwind’s, Laine and Martilla’s, Barrière and Lorch’s theories) are discussed. The analysis is performed based on Russian neuropsychology statements where a set of two parameters characterizing the system structure of the psychic function is used. The first parameter corresponds to the internal structure of writing (the function of writing is treated as an undivided whole or a whole consisting of several components). The second parameter corresponds to the interfunctional relations between writing and other functions (describes if writing is a separate independent function or consists of components common to other psychic functions). In Russian neuropsychology foreign theories are traditionally considered as theories of narrow localizationalism. It is established however that in most reviewed theories writing is considered as a function with complex multicomponent structure containing components common to other psychic functions that provide the interaction between different functions.
Features of teaching/learning under conditions of novelty, complexity and uncertainty are considered. Distinctions between: (a) abilities to learn independently in novel areas, and (b) abilities to be taught following external rules and demands, are introduced. Also the corresponding distinctions between teaching abilities are introduced. Learners’ preparation for unique situations and difficulties is analyzed. It is shown that assistance and counteraction to teaching/learning are factors that influence complexity and unpredictability of development.
Technological changes in modern informational society raise a question of development of appropriate ways of adaption in people actively using new technologies which in turn requires the development of methodological tools for assessment of psychological effects of technological progress. This paper is devoted to development and validation of the inventory technique for measurement of changes of psychological boundaries while using technical devices. Three versions of the techniques were developed (for mobile phone, internet and computer); all of them were found to be reliable instruments of assessment of psychological dependence on technical devices, changes in psychological boundaries and new needs development (total of 254 subjects). Convergent validity of the techniques was confirmed. Factor structure of the techniques corresponds to the theoretical model.
Traditionally, in studies of the role of socio-cultural factors in development of personality traits these factors are operationalized at the macro-level (as race, ethnicity, nationality, country of residence) and do not allow to take into account regional and local features that are particularly widespread in such countries as Russia. The aim of this study was to determine effects of the city and region of residence (both direct effects and effects mediated by age and gender of the subjects) on the strategies of response to items and on personality traits of the subjects. The data obtained from the approbation of the second version of Minnesota Multiphasic study Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) on a sample of 1237 subjects from six cities of Russia (Barnaul, Moscow, Perm, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Tver, Tomsk) were analyzed. According to the results, there is an invariant personality structure at the general level of analysis and features that are specific for both Russia and the city of residence. The major regional and local effects are mediated by gender and age which allows highlighting the "zones" of particular interest for further research. In particular, the age group of Perm’ residents aged 25–39 is characterized by a high level of aggravation and psychopathy; while the level of depression and hysteria in young under 25 who live in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is much lower than in other age groups in this city and other cities. Another interesting question concerns the psychological reasons of the flattening of gender differences in hypochondria, depression, hysteria, psychasthenia, social introversion scores in Moscow and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The data are discussed in terms of the impact of socio-economic factors in different cities and further studies that are needed to explain social and psychological causes of these effects.
The effect of conceptual flexibility involves inclusion of attributes that are irrelevant to the formed category in the concept and their further handling where required. The previous studies show that the conceptual flexibility effect arises while performing feature inference tasks and doesn’t arise while performing classification tasks. In the last case attention becomes too focused on one attribute. In the study the hypothesis according to which the conceptual flexibility effect may arise while performing classification tasks is tested on a sample of students (N=60). As this take place objects with attributes that are functionally connected and potentially related to semantic knowledge of the students are used as stimuli.
The process of complex problem solving while exploring and managing a virtual factory simulated by a computer dynamic scenario is considered. The relations between: (a) estimates of subjective uncertainty (beliefs about features of the system explored and managed, methods of the problem solving, expectations of effects of one’s actions), and (b) performance in complex problem solving (measured as increase/decrease of amount of virtual money) are identified. It is shown that subjective uncertainty has a complex structure and affects complex problem solving in different ways. It can be a powerful factor of positive motivation (via interest in the task) or a factor of negative motivation and desire to escape from the complex problem solving situation. There were two different mechanisms of uncertainty reduction in different types of the problem solvers. The solvers with exploratory behavior demonstrate step-by-step increase of optimistic certainty and confidence based on more and more successful orientation in the system and methods of work with it. The solvers with chaotic or rigid behavior demonstrate increase of pessimistic certainty caused by repeating failures, growing confidence in their inability to cope with the task, and desire to get out of the complex problem situation. A regression model of relations between subjective uncertainty and efficiency of complex problem solving is proposed.