The purpose of this review is to analyze the latest trends in the methodology of sociology of emotions based on the consideration of empirical studies of the North American, Australian and European researchers. The main problem of empirical research in the sociology of emotions is finding and fixing the emotional states by means of sociological methods as well as the using non-sociological methods. Difficulties in finding and interpreting of emotions on the part of the respondents, as well as on the part of researchers lead that sociologists tend, to choose the combination of different methods and techniques as the main research strategy. The author tentatively outlines several strategies of combining methods for the study of emotions in different social contexts for fixing the emotion management, discovering new meanings of emotions and modeling a complete picture of the studied phenomena, in particular the social conditions and factors of emotional reactions: a combination of interviews (including interview with several participants), observation, group discussions (focus groups), video analysis and text analysis; combining the textual and conversation analysis on the Internet; a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods – surveys, different types of interviews and observations, and a combination of sociological and technological methods – interviews and self-reports with measurement of the facial temperature, vocalizations of emotions, speech rhythm and speed of speaking.
Article is based on analysis of the Russian and foreign publications on the topic of social studies of blogosphere.
The paper discusses some issues of selection, comparison and evaluation of relevant methodology for scientific knowledge dynamics analysis. Postpositivist metatheoretical discourse within sociological theory has been predominantly concerned with contrasting approaches to science studies? developed by Kuhn and Lakatos with some sociological projects (Mullins, Bloor, Foucault) . "Theoretical research programs" methodology suggested/elaborated by Berger, Zelditch and Wagner provides us with many benefits and advanced features instrumental demonstration of which can be demonstrated when applied to a history of sociology of science. "Theoretical research programs" methodology responds to questions of theory evaluation, way they are clustering, social and rational aspects of their development and indicators/empirical evidence of theory progress.
The paper focuses on "mobile methods". In early 2000s New Mobility Paradigm highlighted the inability of traditional “static methods” to study “life in motion”. Later on, new methods were introduced and traditional ones were revised, which intensified the debate on methodology of studying mobilities. This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion in three ways. Firstly, it makes the distinction between “mobile methods” and “methods of moving with”. Secondly, it analyses and compares three methods of “moving with” including popular “going along”, less known “shadowing” and almost unknown “modal analysis”. The idea to bring together three methods is to show the variety of modes of moving with and thus enrich Mobility Studies research toolkit. Thirdly, the paper summarizes the pros and cons of “moving with” (and its derivatives) as a research tool. It also puts the debate on “moving with” in a broader context of discussion on “mobile methods” and “methods of mobilities research”.
The article examines the creation and analysis of photographic images in the course of sociological research. A brief overview of a number of works where photography is used as a source for describing social interaction is presented. It is shown that the “readymade photography” in the contrast to the “research photography” has a number of restrictive properties that do not allow it to be relevant to the description of social interaction. The research photography is seen as a resource that is used to create a model for studying social interaction. For this purpose the model is initially organized in three stages (preparation for the research, finding the photographer-researcher directly in the field, providing research results) with an epistemological principle inherent in each stage. The principle of assumed and non-assumed information corresponds to the preparatory stage of the study. The principle of selective continuity corresponds to the field stage. The final stage of research corresponds to the principle of analysis of a photographic event. Then we consider the variables responsible for the research process in each stage. At the first stage methodology, research problem, expected results are considered. In the second stage these are the membership of the research photographer in a social institution, the place of photographing, the visibility of the scene and the act of photographing. For the third stage we consider the field archive, the linearity of the event and the event-process, the photo as an illustration and as data. The research photographer himself occupies a central position in the proposed model. The created model is illustrated by two field cases whithin the framework of the study of “group cohesion”.
Based on the data of a WCIOM’s national survey, the article elaborates a syntactic and semantic analytical procedure to reconstruct a repertoire of the questions, which are matched to the fixed respondents’ answers (i. e. which presumably were actually answered), and to diagnose communicative adequacy of the basic question as it was designed for the questionnaire.
Psychologists and sociologists usually interpret happiness scores as cardinal and comparable across respondents, and thus run OLS regressions on happi-ness and changes in happiness. Economists usually assume only ordinality and have mainly used ordered latent response models, thereby not taking satisfactory account of fixed individual traits. We address this problem by developing a conditional estimator for the fixed-effect ordered logit model. We find that assuming ordinality or cardinality of happiness scores makes little difference, whilst allowing for fixed-effects does change results substantially. We call for more research into the determinants of the personality traits mak-ing up these fixed-effects.
Measurement invariance is a key prerequisite for meaningful comparative studies using survey data. For many popular constructs in social sciences, unfortunately, measurement invariance does not hold. This paper illustrates a novel and efficient approach to measurement invariance testing, known as approximate Bayesian invariance. This approach has been shown in a couple of recent studies to be quite effective in handling a relatively small amount of non-invariance in latent constructs. This powerful methodology is applied to establishing cross-national comparability of pro-choice values, a sub-dimension of a well-known index of emancipative values (EVI) reflecting people’s attitudes to abortion, divorce, and homosexuality. Although the classical, or exact, approach to invariance testing suggests that neither full scalar, nor even full metric invariance hold for pro-choice values across ten cultural zones of the Welzel-Inglehart cultural map of the world, the Bayesian approach offers a rather optimistic conclusion that pro-choice values are approximately invariant not only across zones, but, for each World Values Survey wave separately, also across all countries covered in that wave.