The article investigates the controversial issues of complicity of special and non-special (General) subjects of crime (part 4 of article 34 of the criminal code). According to the author, the combination of specific methods of criminal law and criminology as independent, but interrelated branches of scientific knowledge within the framework of the criminological-legal approach allows to overcome the formalized criminal-legal characteristics of the institution of complicity and, taking into account its social grounds, to determine new possible prospects of study.
The article is devoted to assessment of social well-being of families of children with disabilities in contemporary Russia. Social well-being is defined as social benefits satisfaction, integration into society as well as a subjective sense of well-being of individuals. An analysis of social well-being will give the opportunity to assess the ability of Russian social policy to accommodate beneficiaries’ needs. The empirical base of the research includes the interviews with experts, parents and children with disabilities themselves (N = 16) collected in three Russian regions, as well as the data of official governmental statistics. Based on these data the research problem is discussed around the most relevant aspects of social policy for beneficiaries influenced on their social well-being such as primary and secondary education, employment, social services provision, public opinion towards children with disabilities.
This article discusses the problem of the so-called objectless presentations, which was largely discussed within Austrian philosophy of the 19th century. Our analysis is concentrated on the evolution of understanding and status of objectless presentations in works of three main authors of this tradition: The Theory of Science by B. Bolzano, On Content and Object of Presentations by K. Twardowski and Intentional Objects by E. Husserl. For the first time the thesis on objectless presentations was offered by Bolzano (1837), who gave precise characteristics to objects, which do not correspond to any type of presentation. Later, Bolzanos ideas were reactualized by Twardowski (1894). Logical and psychological study of the latter was mainly based on his interpretation of Brentanos conception, and particularly on his own understanding of intentionality. Twardowski in his investigations wrote about a necessity of special differentiation between the content of presentation and the immanent object, where the latter was considered as intentional and real. Thus, from Twardowskis point of view, the idea of objectless presentations is based on a visible mistake: nonexistence of an object is always confused with its nonbeing presented. Also the matter of exceptional importance is his analysis of the notion nothing. This notion was originally brought into the discussion by Bernard Bolzano, who used it as an example of objectless presentation. As an answer to this Twardowski presented the logical analysis of nothing and proved that it (in terms of Mills logic) is not a name, or, in other words, it is not a categorematic, but syncategorematic expression. Husserls essay in some way finishes this discussion. Here we should pay attention to the problem of the context Husserl was writing his work (1894) in. Intentional Objects was the first work Husserl did not write in the tradition of Brentanos descriptive psychology. Under the influence of Frege and Bolzano, Husserl becomes a radical critic of psychologism, and, of course, he successfully ridiculed the thing as an assumption of existence of such essences as content of presentation. Accordingly, as he took up the position of logicism he sharply criticized various attempts of assuming the real existence of those things, which are logically impossible. Thus, we can note, that this analysis allows us to find out the key opposition, which characterizes philosophy of those times: the opposition of psychologism and logicism.
The article aims at analyzing the means of expression of feelings and emotional states in German children’s literature in the works of Kirsten Boie and at identifying the frequency of use of these means at four levels of the language: phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic, which will help to determine the most used means of expressing emotiveness at each of the analyzed levels of the language. The research was carried out on the material of the following works of the German writer: King-Kong, das Schulschwein (1995); King-Kong, Allerhand und mehr (2004); Verflixt – ein Nix! (2003); Nix wie weg (2013); Jenny ist meistens schön friedlich (2012); Sophies schlimme Briefe (2011); Paule ist ein Glücksgriff (2010); Die liebe Familie (2004). The total text volume was 1,453 pages. 4,441 units of analysis served as the empirical material (2,342 at the phonetic level, 134 at the morphologi-cal level, 1,131 at the lexical level, 834 at the syntactic level). The analysis of the category of emotiveness was carried out at the pho-netic, morphological, lexical and syntactic levels of the language using the methods of integral text analysis, contextual analysis and a descriptive method. To contrast normal speech and speech in a state of emotional tension, an analysis of the lexical-semantic and syntactic shifts of emotional speech was conducted, as well as a combinatorial semantic analysis. The method of emotive valence was used to study language tools and their combinations in the texts. The quantitative analysis method was used to determine the most frequently used means of expressing emotiveness at each of the studied levels of the language. The following results were ob-tained. First and foremost, emotions in the works of Kirsten Boie are expressed with the help of phonetic (graphical) means: excla-mation mark, italics and full stop. At the lexical level, the priority is mostly given to stylistically colored synonyms, colloquial vo-cabulary and interjections. To describe the observed emotional states, the priority is given to verbs of speaking used with adverbs expressing some emotional states. At the syntactic level, emotions are usually expressed with the help of rhetorical exclamation, repetition, parceling and inversion. The morphological means are used very rarely. Interestingly, the same emotions and feelings can be expressed with the help of different means of the language and, vice versa, the same expressive language means can convey dif-ferent, sometimes opposite, emotions and emotional states. It should also be noted that the analyzed methods do not always directly convey the emotional state of the characters, sometimes they help to express the emotional background and the tonality of fiction books.
The article compares two twentieth century English novels: The Ministry of Fear (1943) by Graham Greene and The Heat of the Day (1949) by Elizabeth Bowen in terms of the techniques used by their authors to create the atmosphere of mystery. The choice of the material is justified by the evident similarities in the plots of the two novels and also by the fact that both authors were acting as British secret agents during the World War II and thus their view on espionage (which is the main topic in both novels) is worth studying closely. The aim of this research was to figure out the reasons why these literary works arouse the feeling of anxiety and thrill in the reader. Besides, we aspired to see whether the authors employ the same or different techniques when their intention is to bring the Mysterious into their plot.
The analysis of the methods of modeling the mysterious is preceded by the study of genre. It seemed absolutely necessary to introduce such a study as the mystery in literature has always been seen as an indispensible part of a detective story, spy story or horror story and the research would be incomplete without the profound understanding of the connection of the novels with these genres or the account of their history and development. It is concluded that the genre of The Ministry of Fear and The Heat of the Day can be most accurately defined as "psychological spy thriller", bearing many of the typical traits of the spy story on the one hand and concentrating on characters’ mind and feelings on the other.
The analysis of the novels shows that they are similar in the way they interpret the existential problem of "the other" and in how they use the duality motif. The main characters in both novels (Arthur Rowe in The Ministry of Fear and Stella Rodney in The Heat of the Day) are searching for the enemy only to find him in themselves. At the same time each of the two systems of characters has its pairs of ‘twins’: while there is only one, though a major one, in Bowen’s novel (Robert Kelway and Robert Harrison), there are lots of them in Greene’s novel, because here most of the characters lead a double life. However it is most crucial to highlight the duality motif in the plot of Arthur Rowe’s losing his memory and becoming Mr Digby.
Still, the authors employ different ways to create the suspense effect. While Graham Greene achieves this by the changes of tempo which becomes faster each time something dreadful or shocking is going to happen, Elizabeth Bowen makes use of the lacunae in plot. Missing information makes the reader wonder and try to fill in the gaps by himself and the fact that the author never gives him the final answer whether he has guessed right adds a lot to his anxiety.
The paper deals with the morphosyntactic and stylistic properties of the Russian verb SUNUT’ and argues for their semantic motivation. SUNUT’ is usually considered as one of “putting verbs” (denoting change of location), but it has some peculiarities in its syntax, derivational patterns, semantics and stylistics. Unlike other verbs of this taxonomic class, SUNUT’ profiles the way the object is transferred to the Goal location, but not the location itself. It implies that after the object is rapidly moved by the human hand, the hand is quickly removed from the final location of the object. The idea of incompleteness which arises due to the component of high speed is responsible for low-register uses of SUNUT’.
It is shown that the component of low register disappears in the context of some prefixes, like PRO- which change the semantic profile of the lexical item. However, ZA- or POD- derivatives inherit the original stylistic register of SUNUT’ and enrich it with additional implicatures emerged from their meaning (‘putting far away’ --> ‘without enough control’ + low register; ‘putting under’ --> ‘secretly’ + low register).
Low register is also inherited by two reflexive derivatives of SUNUT’: SUNUT’SJA & SOVAT’SJA. The results of the corpus study (based on the data of Russian National Corpus, www.ruscorpora.ru) presented in the paper demonstrate that previously the reflexive and non-reflexive forms of SUNUT’ were not stylistically marked and occurred in neutral surroundings. No earlier than in the XIX century the reflexive forms SUNUT’SJA & SOVAT’SJA denoted impatient motion of a human being in different directions. In most cases that was motion forward form the initial position. Interestingly, the forms were also used in contexts of polite request, which prove they were not marked stylistically. The gradual effect of lowering of the register took place within the interval of one century; it represents a clear case of semantic shift affecting these derivatives.
The non-reflexive verb SUNUT’ displays an unusual semantic development: along with ‘putting’, in Modern Russian, it can denote ‘giving’, ‘showing’ and ‘hitting’. The final part of the paper argues that the corresponding shifts (no matter how unusual they look) are motivated by regular syntactic patterns of SUNUT’. The most complicated is the shift from ‘putting’ to ‘hitting’. The verb undergoes radical syntactic reinterpretation and becomes intransitive.
However, the mechanism of this shift is fully transparent as it is shown in the article.
This work is devoted to the examination and analysis of the family business inheritance phenomenon, its emergence and specific system prevailing in Russia. The focus is made on the review of the most relevant and popular theories and methods used by the authors to study the position of women in the system of small family firms’ inheritance, obstacles women face in the process of business transition to the second generation and the role stereotypical traditional Russian brought-up plays in these issues. The article concentrates on the “gender attributes” – inequality between male and female heirs both in administration of family firm and in the process of decision-making about the future development of the enterprise. The scheme of family business inheritance in Russia is one of the serious problems linked to both entrepreneurship and aspects related to gender inequality.
A study of the typological characteristics of the social behavior of students of the Faculty of Physical Education. Three types of behavior of students, each of whom has an original pattern of psychological characteristics, providing a variety of options to adapt to the educational environment of the university teacher. Identified averages scales love for children interested in the sport and an interest in teaching. Only the students of the first type of social behavior are distinguished in the scale interest in the sport is above average. Typology of psychological characteristics will provide quality training to future careers.
The present article analyzes the phenomenon of the Victorian text in the XX century English literature. The aim of the research is to establish the nature of the intertextual dialogue between the Victorian text and the English literature of the 1st half of the XX century. The study will be conducted on the material of J. Galsworthy’s “The Forsyte Saga” and J. Fowles “The French Lieutenant’s Woman”, which are chosen to contrast realistic and postmodernist approach to the Victorian text. The main methods of the research are contextual analysis and complex stylistic analysis based on the principles of foregrounding. First, the paper outlines a list of the Victorian text typical features, then, it focuses on the comparison of the transformation the Victorian text undergoes in Galsworthy’s “The Forsyte Saga” and Fowles “The French Lieutenant’s Woman”.
Literature review demonstrates that the majority of scientists identify two principal variants of the intertextual dialogue between the Victorian text and Neo-Victorian novel: nostalgic stylization and interpretation or parody of the Victorian text. In order to identify which strategy is used by Galsworthy and Fowles the authors of the present article analyzed the bildungsroman form of the novels under consideration, their system of characters, the novels endings, narrative strategies, the setting of the novels. This study shows that on the conceptual and thematic levels both novels are relatively close to the tradition of the Victorian text while on the level of the system of characters and narration considerable differences are observed. Galsworthy in most respects follows the Victorian literature tradition of plot construction, chronological development of the narration and setting, nevertheless, critically reevaluating some fundamental Victorian values, which influences his choice of the ending in “The Forsyte Saga”. Fowles choses the second strategy of postmodernist play with his reader and parodying the Victorian text. As a result, he borrows recognizable elements of the Victorian novel (bildungsroman, happy ending, setting) at the same time breaking principles of chronological development of the narration and omniscience of the narrator, which enables him to fill the old Victorian novel form with new existential content.
The article is devoted to the problem of mutual correlation between individual and political freedom in the context of ethical, legal and political legitimation of the state. The method - hermeneutical reconstruction and comparative analysis of the state philosophy by Kant, Hegel and Husserl. As a result of hermeneutic reconstruction of Kant’s state philosophy, there are revealed four constitutional factors: the principle of freedom, republicanism, the principle of membership and legality. Kant makes a distinction between noumenal (moral) and phenomenal (political-legal) freedom, emphasizing that in the sphere of politics and law, nominal freedom cannot become the basis of moral law, since it should not be limited from the outside (heteronomically), but only be relied upon by the individual “from within” (autonomously). For Kant, noumenal freedom is the only right initially given to each person on the basis of his belonging to the human race (natural low). The political community, represented by the state, is authorized only to protect this freedom from external coercion, but has no right to encroach on the restriction of internal (nominal) human freedom. Kant chooses the Republic as preferred form of government, since the law is the final authority. As a result of the comparative analysis of Kant’s and Hegel's state philosophy, the author comes to the conclusion that both thinkers are unanimous in understanding freedom as a basis for state legitimization. At the same time, Hegel “removes” Kant's established distinction between nominal and phenomenal freedom and takes as a basis the collective, universal freedom of the state, which embodies objectivity, truth and morality. The highest ideal and duty of the individual is to renounce autonomy in the name of the state, which is defined as a divine end in itself. Hegel picks up the ethical strategy of Kant's interpretation of the state and complementing it with two others: the understanding of the state as a result of natural teleology (the purpose of nature) and as a result of reasonable teleology (conscious and free choice of human). Hegel prefers monarchy as preferred form of government. Husserl, following Kant, develops and consistently radicalizes ethical and instrumentalist understanding of the state, emphasizing its transitory nature and focusing on the self-realization of a free, phenomenologically reflective individual. However, the freedom of the individual phenomenologist is limited by attachment to the phenomenological and contains rudiments of natural and intelligent teleology in the spirit of Hegel. Although phenomenology, in Husserl's understanding, is neither a “state philosophy” nor a purely personal practice, it acquires the specific nature of the intellectual aristocracy: the phenomenological movement and the community of phenomenologists represent the ideal completion of the political history of European humanity.
Reflecting the main mental trends of the present socio-cultural situation, modern folklore is characterized by its inhomogeneity. In most cases it is determined by the mixture of urban and rural traditions caused by technocratic progress and the process of urbanization. City in modern folklore is treated as a system of interconnected mental and cultural trends, traditions. Cultural knowledge, accepted in a folk society, is transferred with the help of folklore texts of various genres. Our attention is focused on the genre of legend, defined as a narration, describing possible and real past events. In accordance with the requirements of the genre, a possible event is depicted as a real one. In the texts of legends a mythological element is often represented, which determines their semiotic, axiological and pragmatic orientation. One of the main functions of a legend is didactic, due to which the behavioral algorithm in a particular situation can be stated. The aim of the paper is to describe the structure of urban space reflected in the folklore texts of legends about Tomsk.
The article aims to explore the structure and poetics of the late collection of aphorisms “A Circle of Reading” written by Leo Tolstoy in 1904-1908. On the basis of ideologically important fictional parts of the book, so-called «weekly readings», the author proves that the collection, despite its heterogeneity, has its own poetics.
To date, Finland has a leading position in the world ranking for the development of "knowledge economy". The concept of "knowledge economy" is actively promoted in Finland along with the overall national idea, knowledge management is organically used in both the private sector and public administration. The widespread implementation of knowledge management programs allowed Finland to successfully overcome the effects of the global financial crisis. We outline the distinctive features of the Finnish economy in the framework of the "European" Arctic model and make an attempt to highlight the key areas of knowledge management development in Finland which, without exaggeration, cover all aspects of society: public institutions (parliament, local authorities); non-profit organizations (e.g., foundations such as "Sitra", "Etla"); educational system (pre-school education, secondary schools, universities); business (a substantial contribution to the common cause of "Nokia", the development of the ICT sector, including gaming business and information security cluster). Thus, in the present article common features of Russia and Finland are examined, enabling to learn Finnish experience of rapid transition to knowledge based economy. Unlike other studies, where considerable space is devoted to the quantitative analysis of economic indicators and innovation, in this paper, we primarily focus on the measures taken by the authorities on the development of "Knowledge Society". The author pays special attention to implementing a knowledge management system in the Finnish Parliament, prepared by the Committee for Future Development. Understanding the need for a fundamentally new style of work in the whole country and in public administration first of all led them to the changes not only in Parliament but also at the level of local authorities in cooperation with universities and businesses. We provide vivid examples of Finnish cities that implemented programs and projects for the development of "Knowledge Society" with usage of new services to enhance efficiency of their performance on the basis of front-line ICT. Moreover, the ways of interaction between business and government are shown, including the experience of "Nokia" which at a certain stage became a flagship of the Finnish IT sector and now includes not only the production of mobile devices, but also software development, gaming industry, information security cluster, etc. Ultimately, it is concluded that all the measures in the aggregate made it possible for Finland to move rapidly to the "knowledge economy". Results of the study may be of interest in the Russian practice both for the northern regions of the country, similar with Finland in geographic /climatic conditions of the area, and at the federal level to develop declarations to involve citizens in the process of transition to the knowledge economy