The present article analyzes the phenomenon of the Victorian text in the XX century English literature. The aim of the research is to establish the nature of the intertextual dialogue between the Victorian text and the English literature of the 1st half of the XX century. The study will be conducted on the material of J. Galsworthy’s “The Forsyte Saga” and J. Fowles “The French Lieutenant’s Woman”, which are chosen to contrast realistic and postmodernist approach to the Victorian text. The main methods of the research are contextual analysis and complex stylistic analysis based on the principles of foregrounding. First, the paper outlines a list of the Victorian text typical features, then, it focuses on the comparison of the transformation the Victorian text undergoes in Galsworthy’s “The Forsyte Saga” and Fowles “The French Lieutenant’s Woman”.
Literature review demonstrates that the majority of scientists identify two principal variants of the intertextual dialogue between the Victorian text and Neo-Victorian novel: nostalgic stylization and interpretation or parody of the Victorian text. In order to identify which strategy is used by Galsworthy and Fowles the authors of the present article analyzed the bildungsroman form of the novels under consideration, their system of characters, the novels endings, narrative strategies, the setting of the novels. This study shows that on the conceptual and thematic levels both novels are relatively close to the tradition of the Victorian text while on the level of the system of characters and narration considerable differences are observed. Galsworthy in most respects follows the Victorian literature tradition of plot construction, chronological development of the narration and setting, nevertheless, critically reevaluating some fundamental Victorian values, which influences his choice of the ending in “The Forsyte Saga”. Fowles choses the second strategy of postmodernist play with his reader and parodying the Victorian text. As a result, he borrows recognizable elements of the Victorian novel (bildungsroman, happy ending, setting) at the same time breaking principles of chronological development of the narration and omniscience of the narrator, which enables him to fill the old Victorian novel form with new existential content.
The article is devoted to the problem of mutual correlation between individual and political freedom in the context of ethical, legal and political legitimation of the state. The method - hermeneutical reconstruction and comparative analysis of the state philosophy by Kant, Hegel and Husserl. As a result of hermeneutic reconstruction of Kant’s state philosophy, there are revealed four constitutional factors: the principle of freedom, republicanism, the principle of membership and legality. Kant makes a distinction between noumenal (moral) and phenomenal (political-legal) freedom, emphasizing that in the sphere of politics and law, nominal freedom cannot become the basis of moral law, since it should not be limited from the outside (heteronomically), but only be relied upon by the individual “from within” (autonomously). For Kant, noumenal freedom is the only right initially given to each person on the basis of his belonging to the human race (natural low). The political community, represented by the state, is authorized only to protect this freedom from external coercion, but has no right to encroach on the restriction of internal (nominal) human freedom. Kant chooses the Republic as preferred form of government, since the law is the final authority. As a result of the comparative analysis of Kant’s and Hegel's state philosophy, the author comes to the conclusion that both thinkers are unanimous in understanding freedom as a basis for state legitimization. At the same time, Hegel “removes” Kant's established distinction between nominal and phenomenal freedom and takes as a basis the collective, universal freedom of the state, which embodies objectivity, truth and morality. The highest ideal and duty of the individual is to renounce autonomy in the name of the state, which is defined as a divine end in itself. Hegel picks up the ethical strategy of Kant's interpretation of the state and complementing it with two others: the understanding of the state as a result of natural teleology (the purpose of nature) and as a result of reasonable teleology (conscious and free choice of human). Hegel prefers monarchy as preferred form of government. Husserl, following Kant, develops and consistently radicalizes ethical and instrumentalist understanding of the state, emphasizing its transitory nature and focusing on the self-realization of a free, phenomenologically reflective individual. However, the freedom of the individual phenomenologist is limited by attachment to the phenomenological and contains rudiments of natural and intelligent teleology in the spirit of Hegel. Although phenomenology, in Husserl's understanding, is neither a “state philosophy” nor a purely personal practice, it acquires the specific nature of the intellectual aristocracy: the phenomenological movement and the community of phenomenologists represent the ideal completion of the political history of European humanity.
The article aims to explore the structure and poetics of the late collection of aphorisms “A Circle of Reading” written by Leo Tolstoy in 1904-1908. On the basis of ideologically important fictional parts of the book, so-called «weekly readings», the author proves that the collection, despite its heterogeneity, has its own poetics.
To date, Finland has a leading position in the world ranking for the development of "knowledge economy". The concept of "knowledge economy" is actively promoted in Finland along with the overall national idea, knowledge management is organically used in both the private sector and public administration. The widespread implementation of knowledge management programs allowed Finland to successfully overcome the effects of the global financial crisis. We outline the distinctive features of the Finnish economy in the framework of the "European" Arctic model and make an attempt to highlight the key areas of knowledge management development in Finland which, without exaggeration, cover all aspects of society: public institutions (parliament, local authorities); non-profit organizations (e.g., foundations such as "Sitra", "Etla"); educational system (pre-school education, secondary schools, universities); business (a substantial contribution to the common cause of "Nokia", the development of the ICT sector, including gaming business and information security cluster). Thus, in the present article common features of Russia and Finland are examined, enabling to learn Finnish experience of rapid transition to knowledge based economy. Unlike other studies, where considerable space is devoted to the quantitative analysis of economic indicators and innovation, in this paper, we primarily focus on the measures taken by the authorities on the development of "Knowledge Society". The author pays special attention to implementing a knowledge management system in the Finnish Parliament, prepared by the Committee for Future Development. Understanding the need for a fundamentally new style of work in the whole country and in public administration first of all led them to the changes not only in Parliament but also at the level of local authorities in cooperation with universities and businesses. We provide vivid examples of Finnish cities that implemented programs and projects for the development of "Knowledge Society" with usage of new services to enhance efficiency of their performance on the basis of front-line ICT. Moreover, the ways of interaction between business and government are shown, including the experience of "Nokia" which at a certain stage became a flagship of the Finnish IT sector and now includes not only the production of mobile devices, but also software development, gaming industry, information security cluster, etc. Ultimately, it is concluded that all the measures in the aggregate made it possible for Finland to move rapidly to the "knowledge economy". Results of the study may be of interest in the Russian practice both for the northern regions of the country, similar with Finland in geographic /climatic conditions of the area, and at the federal level to develop declarations to involve citizens in the process of transition to the knowledge economy