THE 129 BC CRISIS AND THE AGRARIAN REFORM OF TIBERIUS GRACCHUS R. V. Lapyryonok, A. M. Smorchkov The authors analyse the key events in the course of Gracchan reforms when judicial power was transferred from triumviri agris iudicandis adsignandis to the consuls. The main objective of the paper is to define the essence of the political compromise which became the basis for this act and its consequences. In the authors’ opinion judicial powers were granted to the triumviri by the lex Semproniana iudiciaria adopted after the lex Semproniana agraria. The authors believe that in 129 BC the senate managed to repeal this law making a compromise with the Gracchans, i.e. consenting to extend the term of office of the agrarian commission. This compromise did not imply that judicial activities would stop, but they came under the consuls’ control. The senate found an efficient way to counter the Gracchans’ plans, so that the agrarian commission became practically inactive. The political defeat of 129 BC forced the opposition to reconsider their strategy. Since that time the Gracchans saw establishing good relations with the allies as one of their priorities and paid special attention to granting Roman citizenship to the Italici. Keywords: Ancient Rome, Late Republic, Gracchi, agrarian reform, imperium, judicial power, senate.
The article deals with the problems of etymology of the originally Iranian name Zariadres, which was attested in the classic sources in respect to the Median ruler Zariadres, brother of Hystaspes, and to the Armenian general Zariadres (in Armenian transmission – Zareh, Aramaic – Zaritr, Zarehr). The research is based on the analyses of the Legend on Zariadres and Odatis, retold by the Greek writer Athenaeus in his work, with the reference to Chares of Mytilene, on the review of the Armenian epigraphic monuments: delimitating stelae with the inscriptions of king Artaxias I, on which the older forms of the name Zariadres were recorded. A special attention is given to the explanation of correspondence of the forms of the cognate names of Median Zariadres, Armenian Zareh, Pahlavi Zarēr, and Avestan Zairivairi, represented in a number of ancient and medieval literary writings. Some new variants of etymology for Zariadres are also suggested.
The work deals with various problems of the manethoniana, review of their solutions in the monograph by J. Dillery and, mainly, with the authors' solution of these problems.
Description of the Humboldt-Tagung "Contact zones of Europe in the III mill. BCE - I mil. CE", Moscow, 29 September - 2 October 2017. This scientific event, which was attended by scholars from 15 countries, including Austria, Belarus, Hungary, Germany, Georgia, Denmark, Canada, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, USA, Turkey and Ukraine, had several main goals: contacts between various scientific institutions of the Russian Federation and Germany, strengthening international relations between alumni of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, rapprochement of Russian and foreign scientists, discussion of topics common to different scientific fields (history, archeology, linguistics, cultural studies, ethnology), involvement of young scientists from Russia into the international discussion on relevant scientific problems, as well as familiarization of young scientists with the programs of the Russian Science Foundation and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Report of the conference "Crimea and Northern Coast of the Black Sea in Archaeological Studies of 1956-2013" (Warsaw, 19-23 October, 2015).
The article deals with the expression “dead or alive” which is used in the Emar legal texts to characterize slaves in respect to their master. Those slaves, previously free persons, were sold into slavery by their relatives or entered the slavery voluntarily in order to repay their debts. The article examines the historical context and content of the relevant sources. Special attention is paid to the orthography and the interpretations of the formula “dead or alive” advanced in the literature. The final part of the study provides a Russian translation of all the texts containing this formula.
The question of the meaning of the term in the Old Babylonian Mesopotamia has a long history
and remains under discussion. The texts from Mari are of great importance for the studies on this
term, as they provide a great number of its occurrences (approximately 130 in 100 documents).
The materials from Mari do not support a view that muškēnum denotes tenants of crown land.
In most cases it is a designation of common citizens belonging to the communities as opposed
to the state sector of socio-economic structure. The use of the term to qualify the dependant low
rank personnel of the palace is quite rare. Since originally the word muškēnum had semantics of
submission and dependence, even high-ranking persons can be called muškēnum when opposed
to the king as supreme ruler of the land. The article has two supplements. The fi rst one provides
references to the attestations of the word muškēnum in the Mari corpus. The second one focuses
on the analysis of its orthographic variants (with cuneiform signs UŠ and UŠ in the second
position). One may note a relatively high percentаge of occurrences with UŠsign, which was
probably pronounced /us/. This leads to a discussion on possible reinterpretation of the word in
Mari Akkadian where it may have been also connected with the root SKN ‘to dwell’.
Within the framework of the project of RSF № 15-18-30047 "Crimean Scythia in the system of cultural relations between East and West (III century BC – VII century AD)" in Simferopol and Anapa on November 10-13, 2015 the scientific school for young scientists "Crimea in the system of political and economic relations with the Black Sea and the Mediterranean" was held. The aim of the school was a deeper acquaintance of the participants with the problems of interaction of barbarian cultures of the Crimea, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean in antiquity and issues related to the most relevant trends of modern science. The school was attended by young scientists from Warsaw, Moscow, Cologne, St. Petersburg and Simferopol, as well as leading scientists from Warsaw, Kiev, Moscow, Osnabrück, Rostov-on-Don, St. Petersburg, Simferopol, Tübingen and Iasi.
Shu jing or The Book of Historical Documents which includes various orations of the ancient Chinese rulers and their advisers, presumably recorded at the end of the second – end of the first millennium BC, is the most important written monument of ancient Chinese history and political thought. The first Latin translation of the book (not extant now) appeared in the seventeenth century, and the majority of translations were produced in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Archimandrite Daniil (Dmitriy Petrovich Sivillov, 1798–1871) was the first Russian translator of the complete text of Shu jing. The article discusses the place of Sivillov’s translation in the European Shu jing translating tradition, clarifies its date, and presents some features of the translator's method. A publication of Fr. Daniil’s translation manuscript along with the already published unfinished manuscript translation by Fr. Hyacinth (N.Ya. Bichurin, 1777–1853) would establish the place of the Russian Orthodox version of the Shu jing translation alongside the French Jesuit and English Protestant translations. A previously unpublished Fr. Daniil’s Russian translation of Chapter 55–26 of Shu jing is included into the article.
The paper reviews problems and results of the discussion (reﬂ ected in four articles) between L.L. Kofanov and A.L. Smyshlyayev concerning the role of Roman jurists and their consensual responses in the development of the Roman law
The author presents a short survey of the main hypotheses concerning the time and causes for the foundation of Chersonesus Taurica, as well as an analysis of a series of relevant archaeological sources. More than two hundred objects may serve as archaeological sources for determining the time of the foundation of the city. They come from the early layers of the site and from burial complexes of the necropolis. Relevant epigraphic evidence includes 45 ostra-ka. The data drawn from them shows that the Greek apoikia began to exist in this place about the second quarter of the 5th century BC. This conclusion does not contradict the data of the written sources about the foundation of Chersonesus. In the first half of the 5th century BC Heraclea Pontica was politically and economically interested in establishing a new apoikia in the south-western Crimea and had an opportunity to found it. Athens' policy regarding Delos in the late 6th and the first half of the 5th century BC forced the Delians to join the project. The foundation of the apoikia was a part of Heraclea's territorial expansion. During the first 50-70 years of its existence Chersonesus could have served as a trans-shipment point and staging post, a port of its metropolis on the northern coast of the Pontos Euxeinos. Anthrop-onymic data shows that the population of the colony was mixed. However, scarcity of archaeological sources and succinctness of the written evidence do not allow to ascertain the social and political structure of the colony during the first decades of its existence. Besides, it is not impossible that new groups of population were constantly coming to the colony during the 5th or even the early 4th century BC, changing the number of its inhabitants and the social structure of the community.
The author publishes a new decree from Chersonesus in honour of Gaius, son of Antiochos, a citizen of an obscure polis of Stectorium (Phrygia) and south Pontic Amastris. Paleography and the type of preamble of the decree show that the monument can be dated most probably to the period from the last third of the 1st century BC through the mid-1st century AD. Of special interest is the mention of the Phrygian polis Stectorium, attested up till now only in three epigraphic sources. Chersonesus’ links with Amastris have been well attested in the 2nd century AD inscriptions, but there are some grounds to suppose that they had been active at least from the second half of the 1st century on. The author also proposes a new restoration of a Chersonesian decree published earlier (SEG 32, 786).