Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
The need to increase the flexibility of the labour market and its adaptability to various shocks requires reconfiguration of its institutions by the government authorities in order to most fully correspond to modern socio-economic conditions. The main purpose of this article is to compare the two stages of labour market reform (1990–2007 and 2008–2017) in the OECD countries. The analysis focuses on the most important labour market institutions: employment protection legislation, wage setting system and active programs. The task of the study is to identify the main vector of these changes, to analyze the features and consequences of the transformations being carried out, and most importantly, answer the question whether the new regulatory norms have contributed to the labour market fl exibility. The study is based on institutional analysis. In the domestic literature, the reform of the labour market in developed and transitional economies is considered either in the country aspect or in relation to specific areas of reform. The peculiarity of this work is the interrelated analysis of the reform of the three main labour market institutions, as well as getting an answer to the question of why, aft er almost two decades of reforms, a new reconfi guration of labour market policies was required. The main sources of statistical information are: OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics Database; Employment Protection Database (2013 update); Database of Public expenditure and participant shares on LMP. Acquaintance with the main directions of such reforms in the OECD countries, their positive outcomes and possible negative consequences will allow the government bodies
The article is devoted to the analysis of the public management in Great Britain where reforms held have been of a much broader scale than in any other country of the world. The article focuses on the customs of the British bureaucracy and the stages of its evolution. The author points out to the fact that despite being committed to the traditions, the current civil service in Great Britain is an open pluralistic developing structure which makes use of the service experience in the private sector, its own peculiarities being taken into account.
Public-private partnerships (PPP) are often seen as a form of interaction between the state and the business sector. This provides useful insights in the special features of such an interaction but does not provide a yet widely sought efficiency perspective. We consider PPP as a form of business organization and show that PPP has advantages as compared to other forms of business organization in the provision of public goods. This approach yields natural criteria under which the provision of public goods is optimal through a PPP. The main theoretical conclusions are supported by practical examples.
Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is a process of purchasing goods, services, works and utilities for public needs in a way that ensures benefits not only to the organization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizes damage to the environment. SPP can be part of the overall mechanism of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SPP can contribute to sustainable development, what is the legal framework for it, what factors promote and inhibit SPP, how SPP can be implemented in practice. By analyzing regulatory legal acts, the international SPP experience, a large body of international academic research and reports of international organizations involved in the promotion of SPP, we advance two key features that make public procurement an effective mechanism of sustainable development: (1) the scale of public procurement and (2) the power and authority of procurement bodies. We distinguish between several different schemes of legal support of SPP. The main drivers of SPP are leadership, clarity of strategies and plans that articulate SPP goals, the legislative support of the SPP process, and the information support of procurement specialists. Our review of international experience in SPP is expected to contribute to a more vigorous implementation of SPP by procurement authorities.
The article is devoted to the search of a new model for interaction between the state and the citizen which has taken place worldwide during the last decades.
The article considers the causes of the common fall of the authority of the traditional bureaucratic structures, in particular, some lack of their capability to respond adequately to social and technological challenges. This article shows serious changes that have been taking place in the national systems of public administration focusing on the specifics of Russia in this context.
The transfer of intellectual property rights (IPR) and associated relations are subject to regular antitrust policy in the developed economies, with some minor refinements. The application of antitrust policy to the same area in the developing countries is a question of controversy. Such economies as China and Russia apply explicit exceptions for IPR-related deals in their antitrust laws. The authors of the article consider alternative options of antitrust policy for IPR-related deals in emerging market economies and provide rationale for weakening antitrust standards under certain conditions. This rationale is based on the goal of structural adjustment of the economy and on the prevention of undesirable growth of uncertainty affecting the choice of governance structures.
The paper exploits data collected in the framework of f ‘Russian firms in a global economy’ (RuFIGE) project, implemented as a part of the HSE Basic Research Program in 2014-2015. The research goals of the paper are: first, to evaluate changes in the business climate in Russia during the period of implementation of the program aimed at business climate improvement in 2012-2014; second, since the business environment reforms were initiated personally by Vladimir Putin, to analyze by the means of survey experiment the influence of reference to the politician in the question wording on the estimates of changes in business climate made by the respondents. The analysis is based on the data of the survey of managers of 1950 large, medium and small manufacturing firms in 60 Russian regions conducted by the HSE Institute for Industrial and Market Studies in summer-autumn of 2014. The results demonstrate that firms with longer planning horizon and firms that received support from the state are more likely to give positive assessments of the changes in business environment. Firms with state ownership, on the contrary, more often evaluate results of the reform negatively. Firms-investors do not differ from other firms in their assessment of business climate change. Reference to Vladimir Putin initiative on improving business environment leads to the statistically significant increase in the share of positive assessments of the changes for medium enterprises with 101-249 employees, and increases the share of refusals to respond to the question for large enterprises with 500 and more employees.
The article reviews the results of the first monitoring of web pages of the Federal executive authorities in social networks. As the hypothesis we used a theoretical conclusion I. Mergel that official government accounts in social networks are the new channels of engagement and a tool to obtain additional knowledge from interested stakeholders.
The aim of our research was the expert evaluation the implementation of the principles and mechanisms of openness by Federal agencies. We developed the special indicators according to three criteria: transparency of the implementation mechanisms, the quality of feedback, involvement of citizens and accountability.
The article summarized the results of expert assessment the evaluation of the Federal agencies accounts in Twitter, Facebook, VKontakte, Odnoklassniki, Instagram, YouTube, LiveJournal. Official pages in Twitter we additionally analyzed using the software service Twitonomy. In conclusion we formulated several recommendations to public authorities on improvement of the official accounts in social networks.
The article substantiates the concept of creating a system of indices (including both integral ones and indices of many parameters), which reflect the level of citizens’ trust in the activity of civil servants. The integral index of trust is calculated as an arithmetical average of the generalized trust index and the index of the personal trust measure. The multi-parameter index is based on the results of research by some well known sociologists (E. Ghiddens, F. Fukuyama, P. Shtompki, etc.) The many parameter index of trust consists of two complementary sub-indices: structure conditions and justified expectations. The sets of parameters are grounded and characterized; the formulas of their calculation are provided. Data collection for calculating trust indices was held by the National polling in 2011 on the adult people sample. A questionnaire was made up to poll the people and estimate their trust in three kinds of civil servants (from military, public service and law-enforcing and protecting bodies).The article gives the results of the poll.