To date, frame is one of the most commonly used concepts in communication studies. Predominantly, research, which are devoted to media effects, focus on democracies, but lately there is a surge in the number of non-democracy oriented research, which focus on media effects in the authoritarian context. Our aim is to define the applicability limitations of the media frames theory to study media effects in non-democratic context. By defining conceptual boundaries of framing and characterizing media systems, we argue, that framing strongly interrelates with persuasion. Hence, this leads to potential restrictions for the concept application in studies of the media influence on public opinion in non-democratic regimes, where the autonomy of media system is violated.
In March 2017 the George Mason University (Washington, D.C., USA) hosted the international conference "Character Assassination in Theory and Practice", organized by the Laboratory of Character Assassination and Reputation Policy. The proposed reviews devoted to the main topics of the conference, the most interesting reports and conclusions made by the participating researchers and public relations practitioners.
The purpose of this research is to point out the changes in journalistic ethics in Russia (in particular, the problem of fact-checking and responsibility for materials) caused by its robotization. We describe this through analyzing the media's editorial policy, their practice in creating a media content by algorithms, as well as a number of expert interviews with respondents who have encountered or face the processes of media robotization within their sphere of work. Potential benefits of the media industry from the introduction of algorithms in the work of the editorial staff and future revision of journalistic ethics do not inspire trust in Russian media. The responsibility remains on the journalists' shoulders not only because of the vulnerability of the algorithm in Russian realities, which developers can not yet bring to the relevant level of performance, and distrust of journalists to the direction, but also the attitude to the algorithm as a tool with which people can only simplify their work.
The development of the modern digital integrated communications that possess the significant potential of social intrusiveness forms a new institutional framework of the interaction between the information society and the social action sphere as well as a new type of links between information and social processes. It is relevant to discuss not only new forms but rather new formats of social institutionalization that develop along the lines of the model of socio-communicational hybridity that is a specific form of manifestation of the specific social networks that have been formed under the conditions of the indivisibility of the social and communicational spaces. Socio-communicational hybridity becomes one of the major and quite effective forms of the organization of the contemporary communicational environment and one of the instruments of the involvement of the individuals as well as different social groups in social processes.
Any promo message and advertisement includes a pragmatic component (goods-related discourse) and a social-cultural component (social-cultural discourse). Within the scopeof direct advertising, the social-cultural discourse often becomes a latent source of social conflict of different points of view. The article is dedicated to the nuances of perception of the social-cultural discourse in terms of the post-post-modern. Theexamples of advertisements are from different countries and cultures in order to make a comparison оf the рerceptions of different social-cultural messages. For instance, in whole of Russia only 9% of the population earn incomes above the “middleclass threshold”, while federal TV channels constantly broadcast barely affordable goods and lifestyles onto this low-income audience. This creates an urgent social need for the diversification of the promo campaigns’ content, methods andpromotion techniques, which would also allow for an integrating effect. The content of such communications may be built on a post-post-modern basis that is currently displacing the disintegration and eclectics of post-modernism. This basis includes virtualisation, techno-images, glocalization, and neo-conservative axiology. The greatest challenge in this list for Russia appears to be associated with the development of a glocal style of promo messaging and communications as a whole. The questions of the advertisements` adaptation and localisation are also included in thearticle. The author of the article illustrates the research with ten examples of Russian and foreign promo messages from different historical periods.The author draws a suggestion that at the core of the matter there is the problem of institutionalising this area of studies. In order to solve it, new policies are required to introduce degree-providing communication programmes and thereby establish communication as a separate area of training
In this article, the author gives a comprehensive analysis of the history and current state of the broadcasting system in the Syrian Arab Republic. The research focuses on the emergence of radio broadcasting in Syria and its spread since the 20s of the last century, the launch of Syrian television in the 1960s, the transition to satellite and digital broadcasting, and IPTV. The author pays special attention to the functioning of audio-visual media from the beginning of the war in Syria in 2011 to the present days. During this period, the role of mass media in Syrian society increased significantly. The media faced several challenges such as lack of funds, despite an increase in annual funding of the media industry, restructuring and integration of media companies to survive in the market, the flow of false and misleading news and reports broadcast by the anti-Syrian media, sanctions by the USA, European Union and League of the Arab States, persecution and terrorist attacks. The author analyzes the content of modern radio stations and TV channels as the production of socio-political programs and news increased during the war. Also, the author examines the legislative framework of broadcasting, the management and financing system, and advertising on radio and television. Such significant shortcomings of the media system as strict state control, mandatory censorship, and the underdevelopment of the advertising market are noted. The main conclusion of the research is that the almost ten-year war and the existence of broadcasting only in the public sector for more than 45 years are the main reasons for the nonstable and slow development of the Syrian media industry.
Marshall McLuhan’s views on the results of the US presidential TV campaigning are analyzed in the article in the context of «cool» and «hot» media concept. The currency and topicality of this approach applied to evaluation of contemporary political actors, including Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, are under consideration
The conte mporary global transformations that affected political relations, economy and deeply — the models of social development did not come completely unexpected.These transformations take path while such important element of globalization as global informational society based upon the technologies and social principles of integrated communications remains in place. The changes in the social and socio-cultural environment on the regional and national levels could be the most indicative illustration indicators of the nature and drastic character of the on-going changes. The coronavirus pandemia served as a threshold for the selection of the ways for the further development of culture and socio-cultural relations. The online-cultural artefacts, the selection of the appropriate channels for communications and the loss of the emotional connections could become the major challenges for the future world.The societies that were already affected by the globalization are facing the necessity to choose a new model of socio-cultural development as well as relevant communications’ formats for its support.
Zircon Research Group leads the project of studying the level of media literacy among the citizens of Russian regions from 2009. In 2014 the procedure of the project had been revised and developed to update and widen the range of skills known as modern media literacy, such as the ability to search for information, ability to filter and operate critically with the information received, etc. In 2016 instead of consolidated Russian survey the representative surveys of citizens were held in 10 Russian pilot regions, which allowed to compare the level of media literacy among the regions. The survey shows that there are several leading regions of Russia with the higher levels of information and media literacy – these are Sverdlovsk region and Omsk region, as well as Moscow. The regions with the lowest rates of media literacy are Osetia – Alania and Astrakhan region. As a result of the survey, the links between media landscape, media diversity and the level of media literacy were found. One of the possible prospects of the study can be the list of recommendations for the regions to develop their media literacy development programs.
This article discusses the idea of feminism narrative that is described through the body, costumes and set-design of a film. The analysis is conducted on the example of the film "Suspiria" directed by Luca Guadanino (2018). A special place for interpretation is devoted to dance and ritual. The methodology employed in the paper comprises the following tools: content analysis, case study and historical-comparative analysis. The paper starts with an introduction commenting the terms of suspense and monster of feminine nature. The introduction shows how femininity served as an alternative to conventional patriarchal institutions and underlines the choice of feminist emphasis in the film about witches. Then the paper gives an explanation of the plot and its performative elements. Dance is analyzed as a complex ritual phenomenon consisting of the phases of liminality. Finally, the paper acknowledges the valuable contribution of costumes in the making of ritual pre-liminality.
The article presents the results of the quantitative step of the study dedicated to the phenomenon of bullying in Russian schools, where teachers can become victims of bullying. The research provides the first questionnaire for Russia that allows the opportunity to evaluate the spread of the phenomenon and get the data about the factors that influence the bullying against teachers. The questionnaire includes 20 forms of bullying, including verbal forms, non-verbal forms, indirect bullying, and sexual harassment. 2800 respondents participated in the survey. The results demonstrate that 70% of Russian teachers experienced any form of bullying at least once. Teachers with low material status are in a group of higher risk, as this factor is the most significant among the others. The link between experiencing bullying as a victim and professional burnout is demonstrated.
The article is devoted to the analysis of a number of short animated films by Pixar. This study reveals dramaturgic canons that have remained unchanged for decades, as well as the main trends in the development of modern animation dramaturgy. The author explores how topics, characters, types of conflict and plot structure have transformed over a long time. Particular attention is paid to how the classic “hero's journey” is transformed in the context of modern short-film dramaturgy and studio experiments with mainstream and indie projects. The author also touches on the topic of the penetration of various world cultures into the Pixar animation, analyzes the consequences of this process. The article also considers the changes that have occurred in animation as screen art: in particular, the evolution of such an important component of short animation as a visual attraction. At the junction of different perspectives of the study it becomes clear how the company manages to maintain balance between clear rules and new experiments, between stability and risk, while still remaining the leader in this niche.