In the age when data became big, the epistemological role of scaling and digital mechanism of datafication came to be on the agenda even in the areas of knowledge traditionally skeptical about any computations. Based on the example of the Obninsk digital project, the authors show how enlargement of data and new operations with them (open access and secondary use of big little data in particular) change design of qualitative research and urge researchers to revise ethical conventions of scholarship developed in the pre-digital age. The Obninsk digital project, which acts as a strategic operator of ethical issues arising in the process of digitalization of qualitative knowledge, they define as ethical dispositive.
In the article, properties of the author and the addressee in the genre of letter to the newspaper in the Soviet Union and in the emigration society are considered. The description of the figure of the author is based on two oppositions: 1) the number of authors: individual vs. collective author and 2) the level of privacy: private vs. social person. The analysis of the ways of marking the author in the texts of letters makes it evident that in the Soviet newspapers, the ‘social’ domain prevails over the ‘personal’ one, while in the letters to the emigrant newspapers, these two domains are equally represented. As the data show, the most important for the analysis of the addressee is to distinguish the following three types of the addressee: the mass addressee, the formal addressee, and the principal one. The mass addressee includes the whole readership of the newspaper. The formal one is the editor-in-chief of the newspaper, who the author of the letter addresses just to observe the courtesy norms. By the principal addressee, I mean the person or the group of people whose attention or reaction is really important for the author and who are mentioned in the body of letter. Throughout the article I show in which manner these three types of the addressee interact with each other and which language mechanisms serve to introduce them, the particular attention being given to the differences between the letters to the Soviet and to the emigrate newspapers. One of the important conclusions I draw in the end of the article is that the presence of the mass addressee in letters to newspapers leads to substantial shifts in communicative purposes of specific types of letters.
The article considers 20th century philosophers’ and literary critics’ focus on the problem of allegory and the connection of this topic with the problem of temporality. The article concentrates on the conceptions of Walter Benjamin and Gilles Deleuze; texts by E. Bloch, R. Barthes, P. De Man, F. Ankersmit, G. Didi-Huberman, M.A. Holly, and others are analyzed in order to determine both their theoretical context and subsequent development. We also examine the interconnection between the concepts of allegory as temporality and empirical materials from the Renaissance, baroque and romanticism, which were frequently used for the conceptualizations. The main conclusion of the article is that anachronism as the main mechanism and practice in allegory, interpreted as a literary experience which overcomes temporal linearity, turns out to be the most important common point for different conceptualizations of allegory as a mode of temporality.
The article discusses formation of the ideological base of the traditional values concept in the context of socio-political debates in the United States in the 1950s and the role of traditional conservatives in this process. The place of the problem of traditional/non-traditional values in political discourse of the United States in the 1960s and its influence on the ideological spectrum are under investigation. The relationship between the rise of social conservatism and politicization of Christian believers on the basis of the idea of preserving moral standards and family values in the 1960-1970s is revealed. The strategy of the American conservatives in using of the traditional values concept to gain political leadership in the early 1980s is analyzed.
The article is aimed to clarify the contradictory nature of the urban atmosphere phenomenon by defining its’ nuances and the genesis of its’ appearance in social sciences. Such approach will help to conceptualize the phenomenon and will lead to the creation of the future urban atmosphere model suitable for further operationalization.
The research is represented by the theoretical analysis of works interested in urban atmosphere phenomenon in the field of sociology, phenomenology, management, literature, cultural geography.
The work can be divided into two parts. The first part describes the differences between urban atmosphere nuances, namely ambiance and atmosphere, and define them. Then the second part provide us with the information about ambiance and atmosphere origin and the process of its’ development from ancient times to this day. In the end of the article the necessity of taking into account the urban atmosphere shades, when dealing with model creation, is argued.
According to the analysis the atmosphere is invisible but is characterized by magnetic properties making the urban space attractive for living bodies. The ambience is produced by the atmosphere, but have the more pronounced qualitative properties which characterize the urban space. The ambience influence on our lifetime by mediating the relations between living bodies.
The consideration of the urban atmosphere genesis in different research fields showed that the atmosphere has been studied mainly within natural science and literature as descriptive quantitative phenomenon aimed to define the space of existence for living bodies. Whereas the ambiance, full of qualitative and tangible characteristics, has been appeared later and has been borrowed by a number of research disciplines (such as sociology, psychology, economics, management) as possible to be analyzed and slightly applied in practice.
According to the analysis the author reaches the conclusion that the urban atmosphere is the highly constructed phenomenon consisting of either atmosphere, or ambience. The second one is the qualitative continuation of the first one and the characteristics of both shouldn’t be overlooked when conceptualizing the phenomenon. The analysis also showed that the functioning principles of physical atmosphere and ambiance can be applied in the model creation. It is connected with the absence of explanation of urban atmosphere and ambience functioning by social scientists. The application of these principles from physics will provide the full scheme of urban atmosphere components interrelation and interaction.
The article is dedicated to the work of the famous Soviet Renaissance historian Leonid Batkin
The publication is devoted to the family of the poet and translator Benedict Konstantinovich Livshits (1886–1938) and their fates after his death. His wife Ekaterina Konstantinovna (1902–1987) was arrested in 1940, while their son Kirill Venedictovich (1925–1942) was left in the care of a family friend, A. M. Shadrin, and later volunteered for the front; he was killed on October 18, 1942 at Stalingrad and buried at Mamaev Kurgan. The letters and offi cial documents that contain these facts are reproduced from the originals kept at the collection of Ekaterina Livshits in the Manuscripts department of the Russian National Library.
The world of animals in the late Soviet culture is considered as an example of an «imagined world», which is based on performative practices of demonstration and contemplation of things and their signs. The fact that in the period under review, in the field of cultural colonization of «wildlife», historicity is displaced by performativity, is determined by the tradition of Russian literary animalism. In this tradition the animal is not deprived of subjectivity/agency, but these qualities get their meaning only in the horizon of the Human: the animal as such is unhistorical and no story about the animal world without any connection with the human world is possible. We will use several cases to discuss, firstly, the role of performativity in the construction of the animal world and, secondly, the role of communicative practices in the process of establishing relationships between the animal and human worlds. Performativity and communicative efficiency, being transposed into the space of the Work, consistently opposed as visibility vs. reality, unproductivity vs. creativity, social atomization vs. experience of togetherness/belonging, disenchantment vs. reenchantment of the world. Our examples demonstrate different possibilities of overcoming the sentimental pathos in the treatment of relations between humans and non-humans, inevitable in cases where the animalistic narrative is limited to the theme of vain suffering of the animal in an alien world. The ethics of compassion evolves here into the ethics of collaboration and the practice of moral construction of particular communicative community.
Academic report: Second International Conference ‘HSE Semantics & Pragmatics Workshop’ : Moscow, September 4–5, 2018
Th e article analyses professional preferences of school graduates before the Great Patriotic War, their expectations concerning prospective professional activity and the infl uence of the Communist idea on their choice. Interpreted as a cause of innovative thrust, this idea stimulated ranking professions on the basis of their creative potential and the idea of serving the future.
The article is devoted to the welfare sate, which is the one of the most important social phenomena of the ХХth century, as well as its present state, challenges and prospects. Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a tendency to curtail state social activities caused by a series of crises in social and economic spheres. However, even with the reduction of state social obligations, most of the economically developed countries are trying to maintain the social support system. Futhermore, structural changes are being made, the role of key agents of social policy is being rethought, and national features of the state are taken into account.
The period of the 1990s is relatively poorly studied and is in a situation of media and ideological stereotypes. This article is devoted to return the discourse of the “nineties” in the analytical channel. It is devoted to the analysis of biographical trajectories and the worldview of “teenagers of perestroika”, those who were 14–16 years old during the period of historical change in 1989–1991 with an emphasis on the transition to individualistic thinking and a focus on personal and business success. All participants in the qualitative research were graduates of the Penza school of young managers. This school was engaged in teaching knowledge and ideologies of a market economy, marketing and business of Soviet schoolchildren of the early 1990s. The article discusses the history of the Penza school of young managers, analyzes its curriculum and the concept of working with students in conjunction with the task of educating “business people” for the new Russia and the ideology of “carnegieism”. Special attention is paid to the reception by students of the school of young managers of Dale Carnegie’s ideas and the ideology of “carnegieism”, who were in the center of the training programs not only of this, but of other schools of young managers of the early 1990s. The article has a reflection on the worldview evolution of students of the school of young managers under the influence of Carnegie’s works. Special attention is paid to reflections on the place of the “teenagers of perestroika” in modern Russia, taking into account the research of this group, in which it is called the “lost generation” or the “failed generation”. The article is based on empirical research materials — the study of thematic sources and interviews with students of the school of young managers in the early 1990s
Book review: Jenkins, H. (2019). Convergence Culture. Moscow: RIPOL Classic / Pangloss. (in Russian)
This article discusses a process that could be defined as ‘exchange of saints’ between Egypt and Syria in the second half of the first millennium. Coptic synaxaria and liturgical books contain commemorations not only of the local martyrs who were born and suffered in Egypt, but also a great number of commemorations of foreign saints who later became appropriated by the Coptic Church, such as a group of the so-called Antiochene saints whose relics were claimed to belong to Egypt either because these saints were martyred in Egypt or because the relics had been transferred to Egypt at some point. The presence of these saints in early hymnographic collections preserved in two manuscripts of the ninth century (M574 and M575 of the Pierpont Morgan Library) provides ample evidence of the continuing and lasting interest of the Egyptian Christians in Antiochene saints. Such enthusiasm could probably be explained by the work of Severus of Antioch (465-538) who did a great deal to promote the exchange of saints between the two communities. The article also examines the seeming absence of reciprocity on the Syrian side and reviews the evidence provided by the early material, such as the hymns attributed to Severus of Antioch, which came down to us in Syriac translation revised by James of Edessa in the seventh century. One of these texts, a hymn dedicated to the Egyptian martyrs, is of particular interest in regard to the ‘exchange of saints’ and shows that the process was in fact reciprocal.
The work is written on the material of the various publications of the Upper Kolyma Yukaghir legends about Yukaghir national hero Khalandin. The historical basis of the legends was, apparently, the chain of real events of the third quarter of the 17th century. The texts of this cycle report that the hero Khalandin fought against the invasions of foreigners (Koryaks) upon the upper Kolyma Yukaghirs and achieved their cessation. A number of legends also contain another motive - that Halandin himself raided other foreigners (Evens) for the purpose of robbery. At the same time, in the legends recorded at the end of the 20th century, this motive is often accompanied by statements that reciter and Halandin himself are not very fond of such raids (in particular, showing that Hlkandin himself is ashamed of doing this to a certain extent). An analysis of historical traditions allows us to think that these moments are characteristic of a late time. The change in the models of the relationship of historical traditions to the foreigners-Evens was affected by changes in the Yukaghirs' perception of Evens as Yukaghirs changed their enmity with the Evens to a symbiosis with them. Some general cultural and anthropological models of perception of foreigners by the Yukaghirs and changes in these models, including its consequences for the modifications of the epic tradition, are revealed.